Superficial muscles of the back of the second layer

Belt of the head muscle (m. splenius capitis) with unilateral reductions turn his head to his side, while reducing bilateral pulls his head back. Muscle has an elongated shape that starts at the spinous processes of III-VII of the cervical vertebrae, I-III thoracic vertebrae and the nuchal ligament, and attached to the sides of the upper nuchal line, reaching the mastoid process of temporal bone.

Belt neck (m. splenius cervicis), with bilateral reduction pulls the neck back, and rotates with unilateral cervical spine in his side. The muscle is under the belt muscles of the head, the point of its beginning are the spinous processes of III-V thoracic vertebra, and the place of attachment - the transverse processes of two or three upper cervical vertebrae.

Muscle lifting the blade (m. levator scapulae), reducing the angle of the scapula elevates the medial, and at a fixed position of the scapula tilts the cervical spine in his side and posteriorly. Muscle itself is located under the trapezius muscle, begins at the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of four upper cervical vertebrae and attaches to the medial edge and corner of the scapula.

A small diamond-shaped muscle (m. rhomboidei minor) pulls scapula to the spine, gently shifting it upwards. Located under the trapezius muscle, it starts on the lower two cervical vertebrae and is attached to the vertebral (medial) edge of the blade.

Large diamond-shaped muscle (m. rhomboidei major), as well as small, pulls scapula to the spine, gently shifting it upwards. Located under the trapezius muscle, it has a start point on the spinous processes of four upper thoracic vertebrae, and the place of attachment, as well as small - on the spine edge of the scapula.

The upper posterior serratus (m. serratus posterior superior) shifts the upper ribs and back up, and also participates in the act of inspiration. Concealed rhomboid muscles, begins in the lower part of nuchal ligament, spinous processes of two upper thoracic vertebrae and the lower two cervical vertebrae and is attached to the outer surface of the II-V of edges, one side of their angles.

Lower serratus posterior (m. serratus posterior inferior) shifts the lower ribs and back down and take part in the act of exhalation. The muscle is covered a wide dorsi muscle; its beginning point is located on the surface layers of thoracolumbar fascia at the level of the upper two lumbar vertebrae and two upper thoracic vertebrae, and the mounting position - on the outer surface of the lower four ribs.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)