The deep back muscles
Suboccipital muscles (mm. suboccipitales) with bilateral reduction of tilted his head back, and one sided - back and side (lower oblique muscle and the posterior part of a large rectus participate in the rotation of the head). Muscles are located between the occipital bone and the I-II cervical vertebrae. Allocate a small posterior rectus muscle of head (m. rectus capitis posterior minor), running from the posterior tubercle of the atlas arch to the lower nuchal line, larger rear head rectus muscle (m. rectus posterior major), which located between the lower nuchal line and the spinous processes of the cervical vertebra II, the upper oblique muscle of head (m. obliquus capitis superior), which goes from the transverse process of the atlas to the lateral division lower nuchal line, and the lower oblique muscle of head (obliquus capitis inferior ) located between the transverse processes and spinous processes atlanta II cervical vertebra.
Poperechnoostistaya muscle (m. transversospinalis) with bilateral reduction unbend the spine, thereby taking part in maintaining the body in an upright position during unilateral reduction spine rotates in the opposite direction. The muscle runs along the spine at the rectifier body. Beams are directed away from the muscles of the transverse processes of vertebrae downstream to upstream transverse processes. The superficial layer of muscles is represented semispinal muscles (m. semispinalis), whose beams are thrown through four to six vertebrae. It is isolated head, neck and thoracic region. Muscle starts from the transverse processes of the lower six cervical and all thoracic vertebrae. The place of attachment muscles are the neural processes of the lower six cervical vertebrae and occipital bone area nuchae. The middle layer are partitioned muscles (mm. multifidi), whose beams are thrown through two to four vertebrae. These muscles are covered almost entirely semispinal muscle. Point of beginning is the transverse processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, articular processes of the four lower cervical vertebrae and the back surface of the sacrum, and the attachment - spinous processes of all cervical, except the atlas, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Deep layer of muscles are poperechnoostistoy myshtsyvraschateli (mm. rotatores). Their beams are mostly interconnected adjacent vertebrae. The muscles of the rotator cuff group is divided into the neck (mm. rotatores cervicis), rotator cuff of the chest (mm. rotatores thoracis), lumbar rotators (mm. rotatores lumborum). The starting point of all the muscles are located on all vertebrae except the atlas, and the mounting position is on the spinous processes of the vertebrae upstream, as well as on the grounds adjacent arcs and adjacent vertebrae.
|In Fig. 102.
Muscles of the back surface and deep layers
1 - semispinal muscle: a principal department;
2 - Belt muscle of head;
3 - Belt Neck;
4 - muscle lifting the blade;
5 - supraspinatus muscle shoulder;
6 - a small diamond-shaped muscle;
7 - a large diamond-shaped muscle;
8 - infraspinatus muscle shoulder;
9 - a small circular muscle;
10 - a large circular muscle;
11 - serratus anterior;
12 - latissimus dorsi;
13 - lower serratus posterior;
14 - muscle, straightening the spine;
15 - external oblique muscle of abdomen;
16 - thoracolumbar fascia: deep leaf;
17 - thoracolumbar fascia: superficial leaf
|In Fig. 103.
Back muscles deep second layer
1 - Small rear rectus head;
2 - the upper oblique muscle of head;
3 - large rear rectus head;
4 - longest muscle of the head;
5 - the lower oblique muscle of head;
6 - semispinal muscle: a principal department;
7 - interspinous muscles;
8 - semispinal muscle: cervical spine;
9 - longissimus neck;
10 - semispinal muscle: thoracic;
11 - external intercostal muscles;
12 - the muscles that raise the ribs;
13 - the longest muscle of the chest;
14 - lateral lumbar muscles mezhpoperechnye;
15 - iliac rib muscle;
16 - thoracolumbar fascia: deep leaf;
17 - the transversus abdominis
Muscle, straightening the spine (m. erector spinae), - the longest and powerful of all muscles. It affects the posture of man, it helps to balance the retention of the body, is involved in turning the head and lowering of the ribs. In bilateral reduction of the whole muscle unbend spine, unilateral reductions in its tilts in its favor. The muscle is the length of the back on either side of the spinous processes and has a complex structure. Start point of the muscle is located on the dorsal surface of the sacrum, in the posterior iliac crest, spinous processes of lower lumbar vertebrae and thoracolumbar fascia on. Then the muscle is divided into three large divisions, each of which, in turn, is divided into three parts. Spinous muscle (m. spinalis) is centered at the back. Spinous muscle of the head (m. spinalis capitis) begins on the spinous processes of lower cervical spine and upper thoracic vertebrae, and is attached to the nuchal area occipital bone. Spinous muscle of the head is part of semispinal muscles of the head. Neural neck muscle (m. spinalis cervicis) start point is the neural spines of two lower cervical spine and upper thoracic. Its mounting location is located on the spinous processes of II-IV cervical vertebrae. Starting point spinalis muscles of the chest (m. spinalis thoracis) is located on the spinous processes of two or three of the lower thoracic vertebrae, and two or three upper lumbar and seat attachment - to the spinous processes of II-VIII of the cervical vertebrae. Longissimus (m. longissimus) is located lateral to the spinalis and goes from the aitch bone to the base of the skull. Longissimus head (m. longissimus capitis) begins a three-to four transverse cervical vertebrae and transverse processes of the three upper thoracic vertebrae; mounting position is on the back edge of the mastoid process. Longissimus neck (m. longissimus cervicis) is the starting point on the transverse processes of five upper thoracic vertebrae, and the place of attachment - the rear bumps transverse processes of the VI to II cervical vertebra. The longissimus thoracic (m. longissimus thoracis) begins on the dorsal surface of the sacrum, transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae and six or seven lower thoracic vertebrae, and is attached at the corners of ten lower ribs and transverse processes of all thoracic vertebrae. Podvzdoshnorebernaya muscle (m. iliocostalis) is located outside from the longest. Podvzdoshnorebernaya neck muscle (m. iliocostalis cervicis) starts at the corners of the five or six lower ribs and attaches to the transverse processes IV-VI of the cervical vertebrae. Podvzdoshnorebernaya chest muscle (m. iliocostalis thoracis) is the starting point in the corners of five or six lower ribs, and the insertion - in the corners of the top five to seven ribs. Podvzdoshnorebernaya lumbar muscle (m. iliocostalis lumborum) begins at the iliac crest and thoracolumbar fascia in and attached to the corners of eight or nine of the lower ribs.
Interspinous muscles (mm. interspinales), support the body in an upright position, keeping the spinal column, and take part in straightening the spine. This muscle group is a small muscle bundles, located between the spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae, and is divided into interspinous neck muscles (mm. interspinales cervicis), interspinous chest muscles (mm. interspinales thoracis) and lumbar interspinous muscles (mm. interspinales lumborum).
Mezhpoperechnye muscles (mm. intertransversarii) bilateral reduction in holding the spine in an upright position and with one-sided tilt toward the spine. These muscles are located between the transverse processes of two adjacent vertebrae. The place of their release location mezhpoperechnye front neck muscles (mm. intertransversarii anterior cervicis), posterior neck muscles mezhpoperechnye (mm. intertransversarii posterior cervicis), the medial lumbar muscles mezhpoperechnye (mm. intertransversarii mediales lumborum), lateral lumbar muscles mezhpoperechnye (mm. Intertrans versarii laterales lumborum) and the chest muscles (mm. intertransversarii thoracis).
a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)
lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)
m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)
n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)
r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)
s. — seu (or)
v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)