The muscles of the lateral abdominal wall
The muscles of the lateral abdominal wall are the broad muscles of the abdomen and placed in three layers.
External oblique muscle belly (m. obliquus externus abdominis) forms a surface layer of the lateral abdominal wall. In bilateral contraction (at a fixed position of the pelvis), external oblique muscle pulls the rib cage and torso tilts forward, flexing the spine, with one-sided body rotates in the opposite direction. The muscle is broad and flat, part of the abdomen. Start point is on the outer surface of the lower eight ribs. Pencils are sent to the oblique muscles down and in front (to the anterior abdominal wall), turn into aponeurosis. Place attachment is located at the top of the aponeurosis. Tufts aponeurosis, interwoven with the fibers of the aponeurosis of the muscles opposite side, form a white line on the abdomen. In this case the lower beams of the external oblique muscles are attached to the iliac crest, and aponeurosis form a secondary beams of inguinal ligament (lig. inguinale).
The internal abdominal oblique muscle (m. obliquus internus abdominis) is located under the external oblique muscle in the anterolateral division of the abdominal wall, that is, forms the second layer of muscles lateral abdominal wall. In the unilateral reduction of the internal oblique muscle rotates the trunk to his side. The muscle is broad and flat, is the abdominal muscles. It starts from the iliac crest, inguinal ligament and thoracolumbar fascia. Tufts muscles diverge like a fan, going to skew the bottom and up the front and behind. The rear beams are directed almost vertically and are attached to the outer surface of the three or four lower ribs. Average beams before reaching the lateral margin of the rectus abdominis muscle, go into the aponeurosis, which forms the rectus sheath. Lower beams are directed horizontally, descend along the spermatic cord (funiculus spermaticus) and are part of the muscle that raises the testicle (m. cremaster).
The transverse abdominal muscle (m. transversus abdominis) forms the deepest layer of muscles of the lateral abdominal wall. The muscle is part of the abdominal muscles, flattens the abdominal wall and brings the lower parts of the chest wall. At the top of the muscle starts from the inner surface of the cartilages of six lower ribs, and below - from the iliac crest, inguinal ligament and thoracolumbar fascia. Tufts muscle directed horizontally forward, not reaching the outer edge of the transverse muscles pass into the aponeurosis, which is involved in the formation of a white line of the stomach. Beams of lower transverse muscles connected to the lower beams of the internal oblique muscle, will form part of the muscle that raises the testicle.
a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)
lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)
m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)
n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)
r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)
s. — seu (or)
v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)