Calf muscles

Among the leg muscles produce anterior, lateral and posterior muscle groups. To the front of the group are primarily extensors of the foot, to the lateral - flexor pronator of the foot and to the back - and flexors of the foot arch supports.

In Fig. 135.
Calf muscles, front view
1 - long peroneus longus;
2 - the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle;
3 - anterior tibial
muscle;
4 - soleus muscle;
5 - short peroneus longus;
6 - long extensor of fingers;
7 - upper extensor retinaculum;
8 - tibialis anterior muscle tendon;
9 - the lower the extensor retinaculum

The front group

Tibialis anterior muscle (m. tibialis anterior) and leads unbend foot, raising its medial edge. Long, narrow, superficial muscle, the start point is located on the lateral condyle of the tibia and the interosseous membrane. Place attachment is located on the plantar surface of the medial cuneiform bone and on the basis of I metatarsal bone. There is also a bag podsuhozhilnaya tibialis anterior muscle (bursa subtendinea m. tibialis anterioris).

The long finger extensor (m. extensor digitorum longus) unbend the fingers II-V, and the foot, raising its lateral (outer) edge with the third calf muscle. It starts with a muscle from the upper epiphysis of the tibia, head and anterior margin of the fibula and the interosseous membrane. The muscle goes into a long narrow tendon, which is divided into five separate thin tendons. Four of them are attached to the rear of the II-IV fingers so that the average tendon bundles are attached to the base of the middle phalanx, and the side - to the base of the distal phalanx. The fifth tendon is attached to the base V metatarsal bone.

Long thumb extensor (m. extensor hallucis longus) unbend the thumb and the foot itself, raising its medial edge. Partially concealed by the two preceding muscles, located between them. Point of beginning is the lower part of the medial surface of the body of the fibula, and the place of attachment - the base of the distal phalanx. Part of the tendon bundles fused with the base of the proximal phalanx.

The lateral group

Long peroneus longus (m. peroneus longus) assigns and flex the foot, lowering its medial edge. Located on the side of the leg. Muscle starts from the head and upper body of the fibula and is attached to the medial cuneiform bone and the base I-II metatarsal bones.

Short peroneus longus (m. peroneus brevis) assigns and flex the foot, raising its lateral margin. This long and thin muscle located on the outer surface of the fibula. It covers a long fibula muscle. The point of beginning is located on the lower half of the lateral surface of the body of the fibula and the intermuscular septum. Place attachment - V metatarsal tuberosity.

Posterior group

Posterior group includes two groups of muscles.

The surface layer

Triceps calf (m. triceps surae) flexes the leg at the knee, flexes and rotates the foot outward. For a fixed position of the foot pulls the drumstick and thigh posteriorly. Muscle consists of superficial and deep gastrocnemius muscle soleus. Gastrocnemius muscle (m. gastrocnemius) has two heads. The medial head (caput mediale) from the medial epicondyle begins femur, and lateral head (caput laterale) - from the lateral epicondyle. Both heads are connected to the common tendon and attached to the calcaneal tuber. Soleus muscle (m. soleus)  is covered by the gastrocnemius muscle, starting from the head and upper third of the posterior surface of the body of the fibula and from the line of soleus muscle of the tibia. Muscle attached to the calcaneal tuber, grow together with the tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. Common tendon in the bottom third of the leg forms the Achilles tendon (tendo calcaneus), the so-called tendon of Achilles. Here is the mucous bag calcaneal tendon (bursa tendinis calcanei).

Plantar muscle (m. plantaris) pulls the capsule of knee joint flexion and rotation of the tibia. Rudimentary and inconstant muscle is spindle shaped. Its start point is located on the lateral condyle of the femur and knee bag, and place attachment - on the heel bone.

In Fig. 136.
The muscles of the leg and foot, front view
1 - articular muscle of the knee;
2 - a square thigh muscle;
3 - short peroneus longus;
4 - the long extensor of the big toe;
5 - short extensor of the big toe;
6 - a long tendon of extensor big toe;
7 - short extensor digitorum
In Fig. 137.
Calf muscles, rear view
1 - plantar muscle;
2 - calf:
a) medial head,
b) the lateral head;
3 - soleus muscle;
4 - fascia leg;
5 - posterior tibial tendon muscle;
6 - Long peroneus longus tendon;
7 - long flexor tendon of the fingers;
8 - Achilles tendon (Achilles tendon)
In Fig. 138.
Calf muscles, rear view
1 - plantar muscle;
2 - hamstrings;
3 - soleus muscle;
4 - tendon plantar muscles;
5 - calf:
a) medial head,
b) the lateral head;
6 - Long peroneus longus tendon;
7 - the posterior tibial tendon muscle;
8 - short peroneus longus;
9 - long flexor tendon of the fingers;
10 - Achilles tendon (Achilles tendon)
In Fig. 139.
Calf muscles, rear view
1 - popliteal muscle;
2 - soleus muscle;
3 - posterior tibial muscle;
4 - Long peroneus longus;
5 - the long flexor of fingers;
6 - long flexor of the thumb;
7 - short peroneus longus;
8 - flexor retinaculum;
9 - upper retinaculum long and short peroneal muscles
In Fig. 140.
The muscles of the leg and foot, rear view
1 - popliteal muscle;
2 - short peroneus longus;
3 - posterior tibial muscle;
4 - short flexor of the big toe;
5 - short little finger flexor of the foot;
6 - long flexor tendons of the fingers;
7 - intercostals muscles

The deep layer

Popliteal muscle (m. popliteus), flexes leg, turning it inside and pulling the knee joint capsule. A short flat muscle, situated at the back of the knee joint capsule, starting from her and from the lateral condyle of the femur, and attaches to the back of the body surface of the tibia.

The long finger flexor (m. flexor digitorum longus) flexes the distal phalanges of fingers II-V and participates in the rotation of the foot outward, raising its medial edge. Located on the rear surface of the tibia, starting from the middle third of the posterior surface of the body of the tibia and the deep fascia of the shank sheet. Muscle tendon is divided into four tendons that attach to the base of the distal phalanges of fingers II-V.

The long flexor of the thumb (m. flexor hallucis longus) bends the thumb, is involved in bending the fingers II-V due to the fibrous bundles, which are extensions of the tendon, as well as flex and rotate the foot. Muscle starts from the lower two-thirds of the rear surface of the body of the fibula and the interosseous membrane of, and attached on the basis of the distal phalanx of the thumb.

The posterior tibial muscle (m. tibialis posterior) gives foot flexes and turn it out. Located on the interosseous membrane between the two previous muscles and partly concealed by the long flexor of the thumb. The point of beginning is on the rear surfaces of the bodies of the tibia and fibula, and place attachment - on wedge-shaped bones of the foot and the tuberosity of the navicular bone.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)