Femoris

Thigh muscles around the femur and divided into anterior muscle group, which is predominantly extensors, medial group, which includes the adductor muscles, and back muscle groups, including the flexors.

The front group

Sartorius (m. sartorius), flexes thigh and leg while rotating the thigh outward and inward leg, providing the opportunity to throw his legs. It is a narrow strip, located on the front of the thigh, and spiral sinking, moves to the front surface. Sartorius is one of the longest human muscles. It starts from the upper anterior superior iliac spine, and attaches to the tibial tuberosity and fascia of the individual beams in the lower leg.

In Fig. 131.
The muscles of the pelvis and thigh front view
1 - the piriformis muscle;
2 - small gluteus maximus;
3 - outside locking arm;
4 - quadriceps muscle;
5 - Short adductor;
6 - great adductor;
7 - Lateral extensive thigh muscle;
8 - resulting in channel
In Fig. 132.
The muscles of the pelvis and hips side view
1 - large psoas;
2 - iliac muscle;
3 - the piriformis muscle;
4 - internal locking arm;
5 - comb muscle;
6 - gluteus maximus;
7 - long adductor;
8 - great adductor;
9 - sartorius;
10 - the thin muscle;
11 - semitendinosus;
12 - the longest straight thigh muscle;
13 - semimembranosus muscle;
14 - a broad medial thigh muscle;
15 - calf

Quadriceps muscle (m. quadriceps femoris) consists of four heads, and is the largest muscle of man. With the reduction of all the heads of her leg unbend, reducing the direct thigh muscles involved in flexing it. Located on the anterolateral surface of the femur, in the lower completely into the side. Each head has its own point of beginning. The longest straight thigh muscle (m. rectus femoris) starts at the lower anterior superior iliac spine, medial extensive thigh muscle (m. vastus medialis) - at the medial lip of the rough line of the femur, lateral extensive thigh muscle (m. vastus lateralis) - on the greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line and the lateral lip of a rough line femur, the intermediate broad thigh muscle (m. vastus intermedius) - on the front surface of the femur. All the heads are fused to form a common tendon that attaches to the top and side edges of the patella, passing which falls below the tendon and ligament in the knee goes, are attached to the tuberosity of the tibia. In the place of attachment of the muscles are knee-bag (bursa suprapatellaris), subcutaneous prednadkolennaya bag (bursa subcutanea prepatellaris), subcutaneous podnadkolennaya bag (bursa subcutanea infrapatellaris) and deep podnadkolennaya bag (bursa infrapatellaris profunda).

Articular muscle of the knee (m. articularis genus) pulls the bag knee. Is a flat plate and is located on the front of the thigh under the interim general femoris. The point of beginning is on the front surface of the lower third of the femur, and place attachment - front and side surfaces of the joint capsule of knee joint.

The medial group

Comb muscle (m. pectineus) and flexes the hip leads, turning it outwards. A flat rectangular muscle begins at the crest and the upper branch of the pubic bone and attaches to the medial lip of the rough line of the femur below the small trochanter.

Thin muscle (m. gracilis) leads the hip and is involved in bending the leg, turning the foot inward. A long flat muscle located directly under the skin. The point of beginning is on the lower branch of the pubic bone, and place attachment - on the tibial tuberosity. Gracilis tendon fused with the tendons of the sartorius and semitendinosus muscles and fascia leg, forming a surface crow's feet. Here is the so-called goose bag (bursa anserina).

In Fig. 133.
The muscles of the pelvis and hips side view
1 - latissimus dorsi;
2 - external oblique muscle of abdomen;
3 - average gluteus maximus;
4 - gluteus maximus;
5 - sartorius;
6 - muscle, fascia stretched wide hips;
7 - ilio-tibial tract;
8 - the longest straight thigh muscle;
9 - Biceps femoris: a) a long head, b) a short head;
10 - lateral thigh muscle broad;
11 - calf
In Fig. 134.
The muscles of the pelvis and hips, rear view
1 - gluteus maximus;
2 - large adductor;
3 - ilio-tibial tract;
4 - tendinous bridge semitendinosus;
5 - semitendinosus;
6 - biceps femoris;
7 - thin muscle;
8 - semimembranosus muscle;
9 - sartorius;
10 - plantar muscle;
11 - calf
a) medial head,
b) the lateral head

The long adductor (m. adductor longus) leads the thigh, taking part in its flexion and rotation outwards. This is a flat muscle, which has a shape of an irregular triangle and is located on the anteromedial thigh. It starts from the upper branch of the pubic bone and attaches to the middle third of the medial lip of rough line of the femur.

Short adductor (m. adductor brevis) leads the thigh, taking part in its flexion and rotation outwards. This muscle is triangular in shape, begins at the anterior surface of the lower branch of the pubic bone, lateral to the gracilis, and is attached to the upper third of the medial lip of rough line of the femur.

A large adductor (m. adductor magnus)  leads a hip, partly by turning it outwards. The thick, broad, the most powerful of this group of muscles, located deeper than the other adductor muscles. Point of beginning is on the ischial tuberosity, as well as branches of the ischial bone and the lower branch of the pubic bone. Place attachment is located on the medial lip of a rough line and the medial epicondyle of the femur. In muscle bundles formed a few holes, leaking blood vessels. The largest of these is called the tendinous opening (hiatus tendineus). Above it is fascial plate, and between it and the muscle formed a triangular space, called the resulting channel (canalis adductorius). Pass through the femoral Vienna, artery and nerve hidden leg.

Posterior group

Biceps femoris (m. biceps femoris) unbend thigh and flexes the lower leg. In the flexed position rotates the leg outwards. Passes through the lateral edge of the upper thigh. Muscle has a paunch and two heads. The long head (caput longum) starts from the ischial tuberosity, short head (caput breve) - on the lower part of the lateral lip of rough line of the femur. The abdomen ends in a long narrow tendon attachment site is located at the head of the fibula. Part of the beams is woven into the fascia of the leg. Near the starting point of the long muscles of the upper pouch is the biceps femoris (bursa m. bicipitis femoris superior). In the area of the tendon is lower podsuhozhilnaya bag biceps femoris (bursa subtendinea m. bicipitis femoris inferior).

Semitendinosus muscle (m. semitendinosus) unbend the thigh, flexes the leg in the flexed position by turning it inside, and is involved in straightening the body. The muscle is long and thin, partially concealed by a large gluteal muscle, sometimes interrupted by tendinous bridge (intersectio tendinea). Its start point is located on the buttocks, and place attachment - on the medial surface of the tuberosity of the tibia. Individual bundles of muscle woven into the fascia of the leg, taking part in the formation of crow's feet.

Semimembranosus muscle (m. semimembranosus) unbend the thigh and flexes leg, turning it inward. Passes through the medial edge of the back of the thigh and partially concealed by the semitendinosus muscle. Muscle starts from the ischial tuberosity and is attached to the edge of the medial condyle of the tibia.

The tendon is divided into three beams, forming a deep crow's feet. External beam passes into the popliteal fascia, the rear knee ligament.

At the point of division into separate bundles of the tendon is muscle semimembranosus bursa (bursa m. semimembranosi).





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)