The muscles of the foot

The muscles of the foot are divided into groups of muscles dorsum of the foot, which include mainly the extensors, and plantar group of muscles of the foot, consisting of the flexors.

The muscles of the back surface

Short finger extensor (m. extensor digitorum brevis) unbend II-IV fingers, pulling them to the side. A flat muscle, situated on the dorsum of the foot, starting from the upper and lateral surface of the calcaneus and attaches on the basis of the proximal phalanx of the fingers II-IV. Tendon muscle, tendon grow together with the short extensor of the thumb, forming dorsal aponeurosis.

Short extensor of the big toe (m. extensor hallucis brevis) unbend the big toe. Previous lies deeper muscles. The point of beginning is on the upper surface of the front of the heel bone, and place attachment - on the basis of the proximal phalanx of the thumb.

The muscles of the plantar surface

In the group of muscles produce plantar surface of the medial group (elevation muscles of the thumb), the lateral group (hypothenar muscles) and the middle group (the muscles of the median eminence).

The medial group

Muscle, the big toe abductor (m. abductor hallucis), doubles up and puts his thumb. Superficial muscle that runs along the medial margin of the foot. Begins on the Mount of the calcaneus, navicular bone and the tuberosity of the back of aponeurosis and attaches to the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb and to his medial sesamoid bone, where its tendon fuses with the tendon of the short flexor of great toe.

The short flexor of the big toe (m. flexor hallucis brevis) flexes the big toe. This muscle is partly concealed by the muscle abductor big toe, has two of the abdomen and begins at the plantar surface of the cuboid and cuneiform bones. The attachment of the medial base of the abdomen is the proximal phalanx of the thumb and the medial sesamoid bone. Lateral abdomen also attached to the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb and the lateral sesamoid bone.

In Fig. 141.
The muscles of the back surface of the foot
1 - upper extensor retinaculum;
2 - lower extensor retinaculum;
3 - short extensor of the big toe;
4 - short extensor of fingers;
5 - muscle, abductor little finger of the foot;
6 - muscle, abductor big toe;
7 - dorsal intercostals muscles;
8 - the long extensor digitorum tendon
In Fig. 142.
The muscles of the back surface of the foot
1 - lower retinaculum long and short peroneal muscles;
2 - short extensor of fingers;
3 - anterior tibial tendon muscle;
4 - dorsal intercostals muscles;
5 - Short extensor digitorum tendon;
6 - short extensor tendon of the big toe;
7 - tendons of long extensor digitorum

A muscle that causes the big toe (m. adductor hallucis), leads the big toe and bend it. Located on the metatarsal bone and is covered long and short flexors. Has two heads. Lateral head (caput transversum) starts from the distal ends of the II-IV metatarsals and the plantar surface of the articular capsule III-V metatarsophalangeal joints. Oblique head (caput obliquum) starts from base II-III and metatarsal bones of the lateral cuneiform bone. Both heads are connected to the common tendon and attached to the lateral sesamoid bone and the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb.

The lateral group

Muscle, abductor pinky foot (m. abductor digiti minimi), assigns and flexes the proximal phalanx of the thumb. Located under the plantar aponeurosis (aponeurosis plantaris), the lateral edge of the foot. It starts on the plantar surface of the calcaneus and the plantar aponeurosis, and is attached to the lateral aspect of the proximal phalanx of the little finger and the tuberosity of metatarsal V.

A short little finger flexor of the foot (m. flexor digiti minimi brevis), flexes the proximal phalanx of the little finger of the foot. Partially concealed by the preceding muscle. The point of it is the beginning of the long plantar bundle (lig. plantate longus) and V under the metatarsal bone. Place attachment - the lateral side of the base proximal phalanx of the thumb.

The middle group

Short finger flexor (m. flexor digitorum brevis) averages flexes phalanges II-V fingers. It starts from the plantar aponeurosis and the medial process of calcaneal tuberosity. Belly passes into four tendons, which lie in the synovial channels with long flexor tendons of the fingers. The two ends of each of them attached to the bases middle phalanges of fingers II-V.

In Fig. 143.
The muscles of the foot plantar surface
1 - plantar aponeurosis;
2 - muscle, abductor big toe;
3 - muscle, abductor little finger of the foot;
4 - short flexor of fingers;
5 - plantar intercostals muscles;
6 - short little finger flexor of the foot;
7 - short flexor of the big toe;
8 - long flexor tendon of the thumb;
9 - worm-like muscles;
10 - long flexor tendons of the fingers;
11 - short flexor tendons of fingers

Square foot muscle (m. quadratus plantae), together with the long finger flexor flexes the distal phalanges of the foot. This muscle is also called an additional flexor (m. flexor accessorius). Is rectangular-shaped and is covered short flexor of toes. Its start point is located on the lower and medial surfaces of the calcaneus, and mounting position - on the outer edge of the tendon of long flexor of the fingers in place of its division into separate tendons.

Lumbrical (mm. lumbricales), flex proximal phalanges II-V fingers simultaneously straightening their middle and distal phalanges. This is a short thin muscle located between the tendons of long flexor of fingers and hiding behind the short flexor of fingers. There are four muscles, each of which starts from the corresponding long flexor tendons of the fingers. The first muscle begins one head, and the other three (lateral) - two heads. All the muscles are attached to the dorsal aponeurosis of fingers II-V.

Plantar intercostals muscles (mm. interossei plantares) flex the proximal phalanx of the III-V fingers simultaneously straightening their middle and distal phalanges, in addition, these lead to fingers II (middle) finger. This is a short narrow muscle lying in the intervals between the II-III, III-IV, IV-V metatarsal bones. There are three muscles, each of which starts from the medial side of the III-V metatarsal bones, and attached on the grounds of the proximal phalanx of III-V fingers. In part, they go back to the aponeurosis.

In Fig. 144.
The muscles of the foot plantar surface
1 - square foot muscle;
2 - Long peroneus longus;
3 - short flexor of the big toe;
4 - short little finger flexor of the foot;
5 - plantar intercostals muscles;
6 - a muscle that causes the big toe:
a) cross-head,
b) The oblique head;
7 - dorsal intercostals muscles

The dorsal intercostals muscles (mm. interossei dorsales) are located in the intercostals intervals from the back side. Total muscle four. The first one pulls II toe in the medial direction, shifting the remaining muscles III, IV, V fingers in the lateral direction. In addition, all four muscles flex the proximal phalanx and unbend middle and distal phalanges of the foot. Starting point of each muscle is converted to each other adjacent metatarsal bones and attached on the basis of the proximal phalanx of the fingers II-IV. In this part of the fiber is woven into the dorsal aponeurosis.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)