Fascia of the upper extremities

The subcutaneous fascia of the upper limb is weak. Actually fascia (fascia propria) along its entire length is different with different thickness, its individual plate well developed and form a sheath for the muscles and tendons, line the holes and channels. Depending on the isolated muscle groups covered by the fascia of shoulder girdle, shoulder fascia, fascia and fascia of forearm wrist. The muscles of the shoulder girdle cover several fascia. Deltoid fascia (fascia deltoidea) covers the deltoid muscle. It consists of two layers: a thin surface covering the muscle on the outside and rolling in its front edge of the fascia in the chest, and a tighter, surrounding muscle and separating it from the shoulder girdle muscles and joint capsule of shoulder joint. The deep fascia of the sheet goes into covering the triceps.

In Fig. 124.
The muscles and fascia of the shoulder cross-section
1 - fascia shoulder;
2 - the biceps;
3 - shoulder muscles;
4 - medial septum intra-musculature;
5 - lateral septum intra-musculature;
6 - medial head of triceps brachii;
7 - the lateral head of triceps brachii;
8 - long head triceps brachii
In Fig. 125.
The muscles and fascia of forearm cross-sectional
1 - superficial flexor of fingers;
2 - long palmar muscle;
3 - radial flexor wrist;
4 - round pronator;
5 - elbow flexor wrist;
6 - brachioradialis muscle;
7 - fascia of forearm;
8 - the deep flexor of fingers;
9 - long radial extensor wrist;
10 - short radial extensor wrist;
11 - ulnar extensor wrist;
12 - long thumb extensor wrist, index finger extensor;
long muscle, abductor thumb;
13 - interosseous membrane;
14 - supinator;
15 - extensor digitorum

Supraspinatus fascia (fascia supraspinata) covers the supraspinatus muscle. It has a dense structure and strongly stretched along the edges.

Infraspinatus fascia (fascia infraspinata) is attached at the edges of the infraspinatus fossa (fossa nifraspinata), fused with the deep deltoid fascia leaf and forms a sheath for the infraspinatus muscle and a small circular muscle.

Subscapular fascia (fascia subscapularis) covers the subscapularis muscle. It is quite thin and ill-defined, attached to the edges of the subscapular fossa.

Shoulder fascia (fascia brachii) is dense enough, especially in the middle third of the shoulder and below the deltoid muscle. The bottom half of the shoulder are bound to frontal humerus intermuscular septum, which are separated from each other front and back muscle groups. They form a fascial sheath for the flexor and extensor arm and are home to some of the muscles attaching the shoulder. The lateral intra-musculature wall (septum intermusculare brachii laterale) away from the fascia of the arm and is attached along the outer edge of the humerus. The medial septum intra-musculature (septum intermusculare brachii mediale) also departs from the fascia of the shoulder and goes on the inner surface of the shoulder, being attached along the inner edge of the humerus.

Continuation of the fascia is the fascia of forearm arm (fascia antebrachii). It is tightly adherent to the superficial muscles of the forearm. In the elbow joint fascia shoulder most dense, here are the starting point of some muscles of the forearm. This fascia also has a number of partitions that separate from each other muscle groups and individual muscles and generators for these fascial sheath. At the top of the fascia is fused with a shoulder bicipital aponeurosis, while the bottom forms a laterally directed beams that form a circular bundle of muscle and tendon covers the wrist joint in their transition to the brush.

In Fig. 126.
Synovial tendon sheath back surface of the brush
1 - tendon sheath long abductor muscle and short extensor of the thumb brush;
2 - the long extensor tendon sheath of the thumb brush;
3 - radial extensor tendon sheath wrist;
4 - ulnar extensor tendon sheath wrist;
5 - tendon sheath and extensor digitorum extensor index finger;
6 - vagina pinky finger extensor tendons
In Fig. 127.
Synovial tendon sheath palm of the hand
1 - radial flexor tendon sheath wrist;
2 - vagina long flexor tendons of the thumb brush;
3 - a common tendon sheath of fingers;
4 - the little finger tendon sheath;
5 - tendon sheath fingers

Under the circular ligament in the back of the hand are channels in which lie the extensor sheath. In the first of the radial sheath (vagina tendinum mm. Abductoris longi et extensoris pollicis brevis) are long abductor muscle tendons and short extensor of the thumb the hand, the second sheath (vagina tendinum mm. extensorum carpi radialium) - tendons of radial extensor wrist (long and short), third in the vagina (vagina tendinis m. extensoris pollicis longi) - extensor tendon of the long thumb-brush, fourth in the vagina (vagina tendinum mm. extensoris digitorum et extensoris indicis) - extensor digitorum tendons and extensor index finger, fifth in the vagina (vagina tendinis m. extensoris digiti minimi) - little finger extensor tendons, sixth in the vagina (vagina tendinis m. extensoris carpi uenaris) - ulnar extensor tendon of the wrist.

On the palmar surface of the vagina are common synovial flexor tendons of fingers (superficial and deep) (vagina communis mm. Flexorum), synovial tendon sheath of the thumb long flexor wrist (vagina tendinis m. flexoris pollicis longi) and flexor tendon sheath radial wrist (vagina tendinis m. flexoris carpi radialis). Also on the palmar surface there are three identical tendon sheath of fingers (vaginae tendinum digitorum manus), which contain the tendon of the deep and superficial flexor index, middle and ring fingers. The little finger tendon sheath (vagina tendinis digitis minimi) is connected to the common flexor sheath.

Brush fascia (fascia manus) are an extension of the forearm fascia. In the palm of the hand are superficial and deep fascia of the hand. Superficial fascia is a thin plate that covers the muscles of the elevation of the thumb and little finger. In the central parts of the fascia thickens, becoming palmar aponeurosis (aponeurosis palmaris). Deep fascia - a thin piece of loose tissue that covers the intercostals palmar muscle. Between the deep fascia and the palmar aponeurosis are fibrous tendon sheath flexors. On the back of the hand also produce superficial and deep fascia of the back pieces of the brush. Surface cover extensor tendons and deep - intercostals muscles.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)