Muscles of hands

Hand muscles are located mainly in the palm of the hand and fall into the lateral group (the muscles of the thumb), the medial group (the muscles a little finger) and the middle group. On the back of the hand are dorsal (back) intercostals muscles.

The lateral group

Short arm, thumb abductor (m. abductor pollicis brevis), removes the thumb slightly opposed to, and participates in flexion the proximal phalanx. Located directly under the skin on the side elevation of the thumb. It starts at the scaphoid and the palmar surface of a bunch of wrist and attached to the lateral surface of the base proximal phalanx of the thumb.

In Fig. 120.
Muscles palm surface
1 - square pronator;
2 - the long flexor of the thumb brushes: a) the abdomen, and b) tendon;
3 - muscle, opposing thumb;
4 - flexor retinaculum;
5 - short flexor of the thumb brush;
6 - short arm, thumb abductor;
7 - a muscle that causes the little finger;
8 - palmar intercostals muscles;
9 - a muscle that causes thumb: a) the oblique head, b) cross-head;
10 - lumbrical;
11 - dorsal interosseous muscle;
12 - flexor tendon surface of fingers;
13 - tendon sheath of fingers;
14 - deep tendon flexors
In Fig. 121.
Muscles palm surface
1 - square pronator;
2 - brachioradialis tendon muscle;
3 - elbow flexor tendon brush;
4 - flexor tendon radial brush;
5 - muscle, opposing thumb;
6 - short flexor of the thumb brush;
7 - palmar intercostals muscles;
8 - short arm, thumb abductor;
9 - dorsal intercostals muscles

The short flexor of the thumb brush (m. flexor pollicis brevis) flexes the proximal phalanx of the thumb. This muscle is also located just under the skin, has two heads. Starting point is at the head surface ligamentous apparatus palmar surface of the wrist, and the deep heads - on a trapezoidal bone and radiant carpal ligament. Both heads are attached to the sesamoid bones pyastnofalangovogo big toe joint.

Muscle, opposing thumb (m. opponens pollicis), opposes the thumb of the little finger. Located at a short muscle, abductor thumb, and is a thin triangular plate. Muscle starts from the palmar surface of the ligament and tubercle kostitrapetsii wrist and attached to the lateral edge of the I metacarpal bone.

Muscle, resulting in thumb (m. adductor pollicis), leads thumb and is involved in bending its proximal phalanx. It occurs most deeply of all the muscles of ball of thumb and has two heads. Starting point of the transverse head (caput transversum) is located on the palmar surface of metacarpal IV, oblique head (caput obliquum) - on the capitate bone carpal ligament and radiant. Mounting position of the two heads is based on the proximal phalanx of the thumb and the medial sesamoid bone pyastnofalangovogo joint.

The medial group

Short palmar muscle (m. palmaris brevis) tightens palmar aponeurosis, forming wrinkles and dimples in the skin of hypothenar. This muscle, which is a thin plate of parallel fibers - one of the few existing human dermal muscles. It has a start point on the inner margin of the palmar aponeurosis and ligaments wrist. Its mounting location is located directly in the skin of the medial edge of the brush at elevations thumb.

Muscle, abductor pinky (m. abductor digiti minimi), devotes little finger and is involved in flexing the proximal phalanx of his. Located under the skin and partially concealed by a short palmar muscle. Muscle starts from the pisiform carpal bones and is attached to the ulnar edge of the base proximal phalanx of the thumb.

A short little finger flexor (m. flexor digiri minimi) flexes the proximal phalanx of the little finger and is involved in its enforcement. This is a small flattened muscle, covered by skin or partially short palmar muscle. Its start point is located on the hamate bone and ligaments to the wrist, and place attachment - on the palmar surface of the base proximal phalanx of the thumb.

Muscle, resulting in little finger (m. opponens digiti minimi), contrasts the pinky thumb. The outer edge of the flexor muscles are covered with short little finger. It begins at the hamate bone and ligaments wrist and attached to the ulnar edge of V metacarpal bone.

In Fig. 122.
The muscles of the back surface of the brush
1 - short extensor of the thumb brush;
2 - the little finger extensor;
3 - extensor tendon elbow wrist;
4 - extensor digitorum;
5 - radial extensor tendon of long wrist;
6 - tendon short radial extensor of the wrist;
7 - tendon long extensor of the thumb brush;
8 - the little finger extensor tendons;
9 - muscle, abductor little finger;
10 - extensor digitorum tendon;
11 - extensor tendon index finger;
12 - dorsal intercostals muscles;
13 - long flexor tendon of the thumb brush
In Fig. 123.
The muscles of the back surface of the brush
1 - short extensor of the thumb brush;
2 - the long arm, thumb abductor;
3 - ulnar extensor wrist;
4 - tendon of long extensor of wrist radial;
5 - extensor tendons of fingers;
6 - tendon short radial extensor of the wrist;
7 - little finger extensor tendons;
8 - the long extensor tendon of the thumb brush;
9 - extensor tendon index finger;
10 - dorsal intercostals muscles;
11 - muscle, abductor little finger;
12 - a muscle that causes thumb;
13 - little finger extensor tendon;
14 - a long tendon muscles, abductor thumb;
15 - extensor tendons of fingers;
16 - lumbrical

The middle group

Lumbrical (mm. lumbricales), flex proximal phalanges II-V fingers and straighten their middle and distal phalanges. Total muscle four, they all have a spindle-shaped and directed to the II-IV fingers. All four muscles start at the edge of the radiation corresponding to the deep flexor tendon of the fingers, and attached to the back surface of the base proximal phalanx II-IV fingers.

Palmar intercostals muscles (mm. interossei palmares), flex proximal phalanges, unbend middle and distal phalanx of the little finger, index and ring fingers, while giving them the middle finger. Located in the intercostals spaces between the II-V metacarpal bones and muscles are the three beam. The first interosseous muscle is on the radial half of palm, point of beginning is the medial aspect of the metacarpal bone II, second and third intercostals muscles are located on the ulnar half of the palm, the point of beginning - the lateral side of the IV and V metacarpals. The attachment of muscles are the base proximal phalanx II-V fingers and the joint capsule pyastnofalangovyh joints of the same finger.

The dorsal intercostals muscles (mm. interossei dorsales), flex proximal phalanges, distal and unbend the middle phalanx, and assign a pinky, index and ring fingers on his middle finger. Muscles are the back of the hand. This group consists of four muscle spindle dvuperistyh, which are located in the intercostals intervals dorsum of hand. Each muscle has two heads, which start from facing each other two adjacent side surfaces of the metacarpal bones. The place of their attachment is a base of proximal phalanges of fingers II-IV. The first and second muscles are attached to the edge of the ray index and middle fingers, and the third and fourth - to the ulnar edge of the middle and ring.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)