Sternum and ribs

Breastbone (sternum) is a long flat spongy bone forms, closing the chest in front. The structure of the sternum divided into three parts: the body of the sternum (corpus sterni), handle the sternum (manubrium sterni) and xiphoid (processus xiphoideus), which with age (usually 30-35 years) are fused into a single bone. At the junction of the sternal body with the handle of the sternum is the breastbone and moves forward angle (angulus sterni).

Presternum has two twin tenderloin on their lateral surfaces and a pair tenderloin on top. Cuts are on the side surfaces for articulation with the top two pairs of ribs, and tenderloin paired at the top of the handle, called the clavicular (clavicularis) - to connect to the bones of the collarbone. The median notch, located between the clavicular, called the jugular (incisura jugularis). The body of the sternum on each side also has a pair of cutting edge (incisurae costales), which are attached to the cartilaginous part of the II-VII pairs of ribs. The lower part of the sternum - xiphoid - different people can differ greatly in size and shape, often has a hole in the center (the most common form of metasternum closer to the triangle, often as the xiphoid process, bifurcated at the end).

In Fig. 14.
The belly front view
1 - the jugular notch;
2 - clavicular notch;
3 - presternum;
4 - rib-cutting;
5 - the body of the sternum;
6 - xiphoid
In Fig. 15.
Ribs top view
A - I edge;
B - II edge:
1 - bump the edge;
2 - the angle of the edge;
3 - neck edge;
4 - Head of the edge;
5 - the body of an edge

Edge (costae) is a long flat spongy bone shape that curves in two planes. Besides the actual bone (os costale), each edge also has a cartilaginous portion. Bony part, in turn, consists of three clearly distinguishable sections: the body of an edge (corpus costae), head of the edge with the articular surface on it (facies articularis capitis costae) and separating them neck ribs (collum costae).

The body edges produce external and internal surfaces and top and bottom edges (except I, which produce upper and lower surfaces and inner and outer edges). In place of transition of cervical ribs in the body is hump ribs (tuberculum costae). At I-X rib tubercle of the body is bent to form a corner edge (angulus costae), and the rib hump has a joint surface, whereby the rib articulates with the transverse processes corresponding thoracic vertebra.

The body edges, represented by cancellous bone, has a different length from ribs before I VII (rarely VIII) the length of the body gradually increases in the following sequence of edges of the body is shortened. Along the lower edge of its inner surface of the body has a longitudinal groove edge ribs (sulcus costae); in this groove are the intercostal nerves and blood vessels. The anterior end of ribs I also has on its upper surface of the anterior scalene muscle tubercle (tuberculum m. scaleni anterioris), which passes in front of the subclavian vein groove (sulcus v. subclaviae), and after him - the subclavian artery groove (sulcus a. subclaviae).





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)