Facial bone

The upper jaw (maxilla), doubles, and participates in the formation of the orbit, sinuses and nose, infratemporal and pterygopalatine fossae. By uniting, the two mandibles together with the nasal bones restricted opening leading into the nasal cavity and is called the piriform aperture. In most of the temporal bone, and four isolated body process.

In the interior of the body of the maxilla (corpus maxillae) is pneumatic the maxillary or maxillary, sinus (sinus maxillae), which communicates with the nasal cavity. The body is divided into four surfaces. The orbital surface (facies orbitalis) is smooth, has a triangular shape, is directed upward and is involved in the formation of the lower wall of the orbit. On the orbital surface is infraorbital groove (sulcus infraorbitalis), continuing in the infraorbital canal (canalis infraorbitalis). In the channel there are blood vessels and nerves, it opens the front of the suborbital foramen (foramen infraorbitale). The orbital surface is separated from the anterior surface of acute infraorbital margin (margo infraorbitalis). On the anterior surface (facies anterior) are fang, or a dog, a pit (fossa canina) and suborbital foramen (foramen infraorbitale). On the nasal surface (facies nasalis), which is involved in the formation of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity, maxillary sinus is cleft (hiatus maxillaris). Front of the cleft from top to bottom is the tear groove (sulcus lacrimalis). Infratemporal surface (facies infratemporalis) is convex, contains the alveolar openings (foramina alveolaria), through which the teeth are sent to the vessels and nerves. In the lower part of the infratemporal surface of the maxillary tubercle is located (tuber maxillae).

In Fig. 76.
The upper jaw is kind of outside
1 - frontal appendage;
2 - lacrimal groove;
3 - orbital surface;
4 - infraorbital groove;
5 - infraorbital margin;
6 - maxillary tubercle;
7 - suborbital foramen;
8 - the zygomatic process;
9 - alveolar openings;
10 - fang hole;
11 - alveolar elevation

Frontal process (processus frontalis) extends vertically upward and connects with the nasal part of frontal bone. Zygomatic process (processus zigomaticus), massive, directed laterally and connected to the zygomatic bone. The alveolar process (processus alveolaris) goes down and has an arched shape. At its free lower margin is 8 dental alveoli (alveoli dentales), which are separated by interalveolar septa (septa interalveolaria), and on the outer surface in accordance with the arrangement of teeth are alveolar eminence (juga interalveolaria).

In Fig. 77.
The upper jaw inside view
1 - frontal appendage;
2 - lacrimal groove;
3 - cleft maxillary sinus;
4 - infratemporal surface;
5 - palatine process;
6 - alveolar bone

Palatine process (processus palatinum) and placed horizontally, connecting with the same appendage opposite side of the median with the palatal suture (sutura palatina mediana) forms a large part of the anterior hard palate.

In Fig. 78.
The upper jaw is a bottom view
1 - dental alveoli;
2 - palatine process;
3 - the zygomatic process;
4 - the median palatine suture;
5 - interalveolar septum

The lower jaw (mandibula) is connected to the temporal bone by means of the joint, so has great mobility. In her distinguished body and two branches.

The body of the mandible (corpus mandibulae) has the form of curved plates. The upper edge of the body of the mandible is called the alveolar part (pars alveolaris) and is limited to the alveolar arch (arcus alveolaris), containing the dental alveoli for 16 teeth. The bottom edge is called the base of the mandible (basis mandibulae), it is quite massive, rounded, with thickened compact bone substance. On the convex outer surface of the chin is a ledge (protuberantia mentalis), lateral to which, at the level of small teeth, the chin is a hole (foramen mentale) is the output channel of the lower jaw (canalis mandibulae). The inner surface is concave, with prominent chin in the middle spine (spina mentalis), which is located under the digastric fossa (fossa digastrica) - a place of fastening the digastric muscle and lateral to the place of occurrence is the sublingual salivary gland - the sublingual fossa (fovea sublingualis). It also runs diagonally mandibulohyoid line (linea mylohyoidea), backward and downward sloping of which is deepening - the place of occurrence podnizhnechelyustnoy salivary gland - podnizhnechelyustnaya fossa (fovea submandibularis). Here is jaw-hyoid groove (sulcus mylohyoideus), a trace of blood vessels and nerve.

In Fig. 79.
The lower jaw outside view
1 - condylar process;
2 - coronoid process;
3 - cut the lower jaw;
4 - the opening of the mandible;
5 - the tongue of the lower jaw;
6 - a branch of the mandible;
7 - chewing tuberosity;
8 - part of the alveolar;
9 - the body of the mandible;
10 - opening the chin;
11 - the angle of the mandible;
12 - chin protrusion;
13 - base of the mandible
In Fig. 80.
The lower jaw inside view
1 - the tongue of the lower jaw;
2 - hole of the lower jaw;
3 - jaw-hyoid groove;
4 - chin beard;
5 - jaw-hyoid line;
6 - digastric fossa;
7 - podnizhnechelyustnaya fossa;
8 - pterygoid tuberosity;
9 - angle of the mandible

Each branch of the mandible (r. mandibulae) is lifted from the rear end of the body, going almost straight up. The exit branches of the body is called the angle of the mandible (angulus mandibulae). The upper ends of the branches bifurcate, forming a notch of the mandible (incisura mandibulae). Before the incision is acute coronary process (processus corocoideus), and leaves behind her condylar process (processus condylaris). In the area of the mandibular angle on the outer surface of the tuberosity is chewing (tuberositas masseterica), and on the inside - pterygoid tuberosity (tuberositas pterygoidea). Both are places of attachment of the same name of the muscles. By cutting the branch on the inner surface of the mandible is a hole (foramen mandibulae), which is the top channel of the lower jaw. Front opening is limited to the tongue of the mandible (lingual mandibulae). Channel lies in the interior of the branch and the body of the mandible, has an arched shape, and contains blood vessels and nerves to the teeth. As mentioned above, it ends on the outer surface of the body chin hole.

In Fig. 81.
The lower jaw is a top view
1 - condylar process;
2 - the tongue of the lower jaw;
3 - coronoid process;
4 - interalveolar septum;
5 - the body of the mandible;
6 - chin hole;
7 - chin protrusion
In Fig. 82.
Palatine bone
A - Exterior;
B - view from inside:
1 - orbital process;
2 - wedge-shaped appendage;
3 - wedge-palatal notch;
4 - perpendicular to the plate;
5 - horizontal plate
 
In Fig. 83.
Zygomatic bone
A - Exterior;
B - view from inside.
 
In Fig. 84.
Hyoid
1 - the great horn;
2 - small horn;
3 - basihyoid

Palatine bone (os palatinum) pair. Both parts are connected with each other through the horizontal plate (lamina horizontalis), thus forming a posterior parts of the bone of the sky. Lateral wall of the nasal cavity forms a perpendicular plate (lamina perpendicularis), which consists of a front-orbital process (processus orbitalis) and rear V-process (processus sphenoidalis). Spines separated by wedge-palatine notch (incisura sphenopalatina).

Zygomatic bone (os zygomaticum) connected to the zygomatic process of maxilla, frontal and temporal bones, thereby taking part in the formation of the orbit, temporal fossa and zygomatic arch.

In Fig. 85.
Lacrimal bone
A - Exterior;
B - view from inside.
In Fig. 86.
Nasal bone
A - Exterior;
B - view from inside.

Hyoid bone (os hyoideum) has a horseshoe shape and is located under the lower jaw, occurring in the thicker neck muscles. In her distinguished body of the hyoid bone (corpus ossis hyoidei), a pair of small horns (cornua minora), bound up, and a pair of large horns (cornua majora), heading backwards.

In Fig. 87.
Maxilloturbinal bone
A - Exterior;
B - view from inside:
1 - lacrimal process;
2 - lattice appendage;
3 - the maxillary process
 

Lacrimal bone (os lacrimale) is a thin flat plate and rectangular forms the anterior medial orbital wall. Together with the frontal process of the maxilla participates in the formation of the lacrimal sac fossa.

The nasal bone (os nasale), connecting with the same name opposite side of the bone, forms the back of the nose.

Lower turbinate (concha nasalis inferior) is a long, thin plate, a bent-axis. It is isolated maxillary process (processus maxillaris), lacrimal process (processus lacrimalis) and the lattice process (processus ethmoidalis). One of its edge is attached to the lateral wall of the nasal cavity, the other hangs freely in the nasal cavity, separating the middle and lower nasal passages.

In Fig. 88.
Vomer
A - lateral view;
B - top view.
 

Vomer (vomer) is a thin rectangular plate. Together with the perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone is involved in the formation of bone walls of the nasal cavity.

Temporo-mandibular joint (articulatio temporomandibularis) pair is formed by attachment of mandibular fossa and articular tubercle of temporal bone with the articular surface of condyle of the mandible. Fixing is carried out on the edge of the capsule of the articular surfaces with lateral ligament (lig. laterale), the direction from the zygomatic process of the temporal bone to the neck of the condyle of the mandible. With the capsule fused articular disc (discus articularis), which is located in the joint cavity, dividing it into upper and lower sections. Form joint condylar, the movement is carried out simultaneously in both joints.

Lowering and raising the lower jaw is around the front axle. Between the articular disk and the head of the lower jaw may be small in scale movements, such as during a speech. If a strong opening the mouth, head of the mandible and the articular disc out on the articular tubercle of temporal bone. Nomination of the mandible is carried out by sliding the head of the mandible and the articular disc of the articular fossa and articular tubercle of temporal bone. The displacement of the mandible in the direction of rotation is provided around the vertical axis of the head of the mandible on the side to which the traffic, and by extension the head of the mandible opposite side with the articular cartilage.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)