The compounds of the vertebrae

The compounds of the vertebrae in the spinal column must, in addition to high mechanical strength, provide the backbone flexibility and mobility. These problems are solved by a special method of joint articular surfaces of the vertebrae and the location of the ligaments that strengthen those connections. Placed between the vertebral intervertebral discs (discus intervertebralis), consisting of a fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus), surrounding the so-called nucleus pulposus (nucleus pulposus), increase the stability of the spine to vertical loads and absorb the mutual displacement vertebrae.

The compound of articular processes of vertebrae called dugootrostchatym compound (articulatio zygapophysialis). The joint is flat, formed articular surfaces of the upper articular processes of one vertebra and articular surfaces of the lower articular processes of another - the overlying - vertebra. Joint capsule is attached to the edge of the articular surfaces. Each dugootrostchaty joint allows slight sliding motion, but the addition of these movements along the length of the spine gives it considerable flexibility.

In Fig. 12.
Dugootrostchatoe compound (intervertebral connection between II and III lumbar vertebrae)
1 - the upper articular process of lumbar vertebra III;
2 - lower articular process of lumbar vertebra II;
3 - dugootrostchaty joint;
4 - yellow ligament;
5 - the transverse process of lumbar vertebra III;
6 - the posterior longitudinal ligament;
7 - nucleus pulposus;
8 - annulus;
9 - anterior longitudinal ligament

Arc adjacent vertebrae are connected by the yellow ligament (lig. flavum), the transverse processes are connected mezhpoperechnymi cords, the spaces between the spinous processes occupy the interspinous ligament, forming nadostistuyu ligament, passing over the tops of the spinous process. In addition, the front surface of the vertebrae from the sacrum to the occiput is anterior longitudinal ligament (lig. longitudinale anterius). The rear surface of the vertebral bodies (from the sacrum to the cervical II) are connected to the posterior longitudinal ligament (lig. longitudinale posterius). Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligament harvested spine in a single unit.

In Fig. 13.
The connections between the occipital bone and the I-II cervical vertebrae
1 - alar ligament;
2 - occipital bone;
3 - occipital condyle;
4 - atlantooccipital joint;
5 - the transverse process of atlas;
6 - the lateral mass of atlas;
7 - Atlanta cruciate ligament;
8 - Lateral atlantoosevoy joint;
9 - the body of cervical vertebra II

A special type of compounds present at the junction of the upper vertebrae to the base of skull.

The junction of the lateral masses I cervical vertebra (atlas) with occipital condyles are elliptical forms a pair atlantooccipital joint (articulatio atlanto-occipitalis). Capsule occipital joint is attached to the edge of the articular surfaces, joint allows movement in two planes - around the frontal axis (tilt head back and forth) and around the sagittal axis (tilt left and right). Arc I cervical vertebrae are connected with the occipital bone anterior and posterior atlantooccipital membranes.

Rotation of the head is provided with features of compound II atlas cervical vertebra. Atlas II is connected to the cervical vertebra by means of a pair of lateral (articulatio atlanto-axialis lateralis) and unpaired median (articulatio atlanto-axialis medialis) atlantoosevyh joints.

Flat lateral atlantoosevoy formed joint articular surfaces of the upper cervical articular processes II (axial) and the lower vertebra articular pits lateral mass atlas. Extensive joint capsule of the clip-on the edge of the articular surfaces, joint provides a relatively high degree of freedom.

Median atlantoosevoy joint - a cylindrical shape, formed by connecting the tooth axis vertebra with pit teeth, located on the front of the arc of the atlas. Thus, a massive process (tooth) II cervical vertebra is the axis around which the rotation of the head, along with I neck vertebra.

Articulation of the occipital bone with the atlas and the atlas of cervical vertebra II has the following ligaments: a bunch of top vertebra of the tooth axis, alar ligaments, and cruciate ligament Atlanta (lig. cruciforme atlantis).


Arc adjacent vertebrae are connected by the yellow ligament (lig. flavum) (Fig. 12), the transverse processes are connected mezhpoperechnymi cords, the spaces between the spinous processes occupy the interspinous ligament, forming nadostistuyu ligament, passing over the tops of the spinous process. In addition, the front surface of the vertebrae from the sacrum to the occiput is anterior longitudinal ligament (lig. longitudinale anterius) (Fig. 12). The rear surface of the vertebral bodies (from the sacrum to the cervical II) are connected to the posterior longitudinal ligament (lig. longitudinale posterius) (Fig. 12). Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligament harvested spine in a single unit.




List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)