The skeleton of the free portion of the lower extremity

The skeleton of the free portion of the lower limb (pars libera membrae inferioris) are the femur, patella, tibia bones and foot bones.

Femur (os femoris), as well as shoulder, elbow, and radiation, is a long bone, the proximal epiphysis of the head that ends, and an extended distal condyle has two (medial and lateral). Diaphysis of the femur somewhat curved forward, its anterior surface is smooth, and runs along the back longitudinal rough line (linea aspera), which produce medial (labium mediale) and lateral (labium laterale) lips. Slightly below the upper epiphysis is a ledge called the gluteal tuberosity (tuberositas glutea).

Head (caput ossis femoris), the proximal epiphysis of the femoral diaphysis connects with a long neck of the femur (collum ossis femoris), somewhat squeezed in the anteroposterior direction and forming the body of the bone obtuse angle (the angle in men significantly more than women). In the center of the femoral head is a hole of the femoral head (fovea capitis ossis femoris). The protrusions of bone located at the top and bottom at the junction of the body the bones in the neck - large (trochanter major) and small spits (trochanter minor) - are connected with each other intertrochanteric crest (crista intertrochanterica) and the intertrochanteric line (linea intertrochanterica). Deepening, located at the base of the greater trochanter is called trochanteric fossa (fossa trochanterica).

The medial (condylus medialis) and lateral (condylus lateralis) condyles in the lower epiphysis of the femur, separated from behind the fovea intercondyloid (fossa intercondylaris). Front condyles merge, forming a platform for connecting to the patella. The formation of the knee joint cartilage involves coated rear and bottom surfaces of the condyles, and each corresponds to the condyle is located above it epicondyle (epicondylus).

Patella, or kneecap (patella), which protects the knee joint in the front, attached to the tendon of the quadriceps femoris. The patella is represented-S THE sesamoid bone in the shape of a triangle, directed top down, with a rough front surface. The smooth back surface is covered with articular cartilage.

Shin shin bone (tibia) - a long bone with a massive (relative to the fibula) triangular diaphysis, which is closer to the distal epiphysis becomes the tetrahedron. The wide upper epiphysis of the bone ends in the medial (condylus medialis) and lateral (condylus lateralis) condyles, a flat upper articular surface (facies articularis superior) which are covered with articular cartilage, slightly concave and has Center intercondyloid elevation (eminentia intercondylaris). Lateral condyle has another articular surface - fibula, located on the lateral surface and is involved in the formation of tibiofibular joint with the proximal epiphysis of the fibula.

In Fig. 46.
Femur
A - front view;
B - back view;
B - view from the left (the medial side):
1 - fovea of ??the femoral head;
2 - head of the femur;
3 - the greater trochanter;
4 - the neck of the femur;
5 - intertrochanteric line;
6 - small skewer;
7 - the body of the femur;
8 - lateral condyle;
9 - medial condyle;
10 - trochanteric fossa;
11 - intertrochanteric crest;
12 - gluteal tuberosity;
13 - medial lip;
14 - lateral lip;
15 - rough line;
16 - medial epicondyle;
17 - lateral epicondyle;
18 - intercondyloid fossa
 
 
In Fig. 47.
Tibia side view
1 - intercondyloid elevation;
2 - the upper articular surface;
3 - tuberosity of the tibia;
4 - posterior surface;
5 - lateral surface;
6 - the interosseous margin;
7 - the cutting edge;
8 - the medial malleolus

The medial, lateral and posterior surface, the body of the tibia are separated by sharp edges - forward (margo anterior), intercostals (margo interosseus) and medial (margo medialis ) edges. The front edge of the top goes to the tibial tuberosity (tuberositas tibiae).

In Fig. 48.
Fibula with medial side
1 - articular surface;
2 - head of the fibula;
3 - the interosseous margin;
4 - medial surface;
5 - the cutting edge;
6 - posterior margin;
7 - lateral malleolus

The distal epiphysis of the tibia is the fibula on the lateral side of the notch, and the median - the down the medial malleolus (malleolus medialis), covered, like the superior articular surface, articular cartilage.

Tibia fibula (fibula) is located lateral to the tibia. The articular surface of the upper epiphysis - the head of the fibula (caput fibulae) - serves for articulation with lateral condyle of the tibia. Thickened distal epiphysis of the lateral malleolus ends (malleolus lateralis). The space between the shaft of the tibia and fibula tightened, as in the forearm, a strong fibrous membrane - the interosseous membrane tibia, which is attached to the edges of the intercostals lower leg bones.

In Fig. 49.
Tibia and fibula, front view
1 - intercondyloid eminence of the tibia;
2 - the upper articular surface of the tibia;
3 - medial condyle;
4 - lateral condyle;
5 - head of the fibula;
6 - tuberosity of the tibia;
7 - the interosseous region of the tibia;
8 - the lateral surface of fibula;
9 - the cutting edge of the tibia;
10 - the cutting edge of the fibula;
11 - medial surface of the tibia;
12 - the interosseous region of the fibula;
13 - lateral surface of the tibia;
14 - medial malleolus;
15 - lateral malleolus

Tarsal bones (ossa tarsi) are short, spongy. Foot with the bones of the leg joins the astragalus (talus). The head of the talus (caput tali)is connected to the navicular bone (os naviculare). The body of the talus (corpus tali) from the top end block talus (trochlea tali) involved in the formation of the ankle joint. The upper and lateral surface of the unit covers the articular cartilage. The lower surface of the talus body has articular surface, through which it articulates with the calcaneus (calcaneus). At last there on the top surface of the corresponding articular surface. The front surface of the calcaneus relative to the elongated foot in the anteroposterior direction, also has a joint surface, serving for articulation with the cuboid bone. On the medial surface of the body is the calcaneus process - support the talus. Heel bone ends back calcaneal tuberosity (tuber calcaneus).

At the collision and heel bones are a number of proximal tarsal bones. Distal scaphoid series presented (os naviculare), cuboid (os cuboideum) and three wedge-shaped (ossa cuneiformia) bones.

Metatarsal bone (metatarsus), like the palm of metacarpal bones, elongated and have a base, body and head. Grounds metatarsal bones are connected to the cuboid (IV and V) and three wedge-shaped tarsal bones, with the base metatarsal II is a remarkable gap between the forward medial and lateral cuneiform bones. The heads of the metatarsal bones articulate with the bases of the proximal phalanges. Total five metatarsals, the first (I) much more massive.

The bones of the toes (ossa digitorum pedis), or phalanges, also have a body, base and crown. All fingers, except the first (I), have three phalanges (proximal, middle, and distal). In the first finger only two phalanges.

In Fig. 50.
Rear surface of the foot bones
1 - calcaneus tubercle;
2 - the calcaneus;
3 - astragalus;
4 - block talus;
5 - head of the talus;
6 - cuboid;
7 - navicular bone;
8 - cuneiform bones;
9 - metatarsal bones;
10 - Bone toes
In Fig. 51.
The bones of the foot side view
1 - block the talus;
2 - talus;
3 - head of the talus;
4 - navicular bone;
5 - cuneiform bones;
6 - metatarsal bones;
7 - the bones of the toes;
8 - the calcaneus;
9 - calcaneal tubercle






List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)