Time of the lower extremity

In the skeleton of the pelvic girdle are connected by left and right pelvic bone (pubic symphysis through) and each of the pelvis and sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint. Educated as a result of these compounds are bone pelvis provides distribution and transfer of body weight on the bones of the lower extremity and pelvic protection.

Pelvic bone as a whole has an irregular shape, on its outer surface is acetabulum (acetabulum) - a spherical cavity, which serves to connect to the pelvic bone of the femoral head and the lunate articular surface limited (fasies lunata). The formation of the acetabulum involving both pubic and the iliac and ischial bone. Their relative position with respect to the acetabulum helps allocate these bones in the body of the pelvic bone.

The structure of the pubic bone, located in the front-bottom of the acetabulum, isolated body (corpus ossis pubis), the upper branch (r. superior ossis pubis) and the lower branch (r. inferior ossis pubis), the pubic bone. The formation of the acetabulum is involved the body of the pubic bone. At the upper edge of the upper branch of the pubic bone pubic crest located (crista pubica) and the pubic tubercle (tuberculum pubicum), at the lower edge - obturator crest (crista obturatoria) in the posterior part of which has a front obturator tubercle (tuberculum obturatorium anterius). On the inner side of each of the pubic bone at the junction of the upper to the lower branch, located rough (simfizialnaya) surface (facies symphysialis) oval. The latter serves to connect the other pubic bone pubic symphysis to form (simphisis ossium pubis).

Iliac bone at the top-rear of the acetabulum, in the formation of which she is also involved. The structure of isolated iliac is short and massive body ilium (corpus ossis ilii) and wing (ala ossis ilii), under which the inner surface is arcuate line (linea arcuata). The upper edge of the wing - the iliac crest (crista iliaca) - has at its front and rear edge of the two tabs. These projections are called the upper front (spina iliaca anterior superior) and the lower front (spina iliaca anterior inferior), iliac awns and upper back (spina iliaca posterior superior) and the lower rear iliac awns (spina iliaca posterior inferior). The inner surface of the wing forms a broad iliac fossa (fossa iliaca) with a smooth, gently descending surface. Gluteal surface of the wing has a front (linea glutea anterior), back (linea glutea posterior) and bottom (linea glutea inferior), buttock lines, serving in places of attachment of muscles. On the sacro-pelvic surface of the wing is ear-shaped surface (facies auricularis), whereby the hip bone articulates with the iliac tuberosity (tuberositas iliaca) and the sacrum. With the sacrum iliac bones form polusustav (articulatio sacroiliaca).

In Fig. 40.
Pelvic bone on the outside view
1 - the iliac wing;
2 - front gluteal lines;
3 - back gluteal lines;
4 - the upper anterior superior iliac spine;
5 - upper iliac spine posterior;
6 - Lower rear iliac spine;
7 - a great sciatic notch;
8 - lower gluteal notch;
9 - the lower anterior superior iliac spine;
10 - body ilium;
11 - lunate surface;
12 - acetabulum;
13 - small sciatic notch;
14 - body ischium;
15 - the upper branch of the pubic bone;
16 - pubic tubercle;
17 - obturator hole;
18 - the lower branch of the pubic bone;
19 - ischial tuber;
20 - a branch of the ischium
In Fig. 41.
Pelvic bone inside view
1 - the iliac crest;
2 - iliac fossa;
3 - iliac tuberosity;
4 - the iliac wing;
5 - upper iliac spine posterior;
6 - upper anterior superior iliac spine;
7 - ear-shaped surface;
8 - lower rear hip spine;
9 - the lower anterior superior iliac spine;
10 - arcuate line;
11 - a great sciatic notch;
12 - body ilium;
13 - body ischium;
14 - body pubic bone;
15 - ischial spine;
16 - pubic crest;
17 - obturator crest;
18 - anterior obturator tubercle;
19 - the upper branch of the pubic bone;
20 - a branch of the ischium;
21 - rough surface;
22 - obturator hole;
23 - the lower branch of the pubic bone

Ischium is the bottom-rear relative to the acetabulum. The structure of the ischium also release the body (corpus ossis ischii), which participates in the formation of the acetabulum, and a branch (r. ossis ischii). At the junction of the body and branches of the ischium is massive thickening - the ischial tuber (tuber ischiadicum), which is located above ischial spine (spina ischiadica). On either side of the ischial spine are large (incisura ischadica major) and small (incisura ischadica minor) sciatic notch. Body and the branches and the ischial pubic bone, bound up, form the boundaries of the obturator hole (foramen obturatum).

Interconnected by the coccyx, sacrum and pelvic bones are properly pelvis bone (pelvis). It houses the digestive organs, and genitourinary systems, large vessels and nerves. This bone pelvis frame is divided into upper and lower divisions - large and small pelvis.

In Fig. 42.
The entrance to the pelvic cavity
A - male;
B - Women's:
1 - iliac fossa;
2 - the base of sacrum;
3 - the iliac crest;
4 - the upper anterior superior iliac spine;
5 - ischial spine;
6 - the lower anterior superior iliac spine;
7 - coccyx;
8 - pubic crest;
9 - pubic tubercle
 
In Fig. 43.
The pelvis is a front view
A - male;
B - Women's:
1 - a large bowl;
2 - the sacrum;
3 - the boundary line;
4 - the pelvis;
5 - acetabulum;
6 - obturator hole;
7 - podlobkovy angle;
8 - pubic arch
 

Large pelvis (pelvis major) has an open front wall, laterally confined to the iliac wings and the rear - ground aitch bone and the lower lumbar vertebrae. Scallops on the pubic bone and the curved line of the ilium is the boundary line (linea terminalis), which is the lower limit of a large basin. Below the boundary line is the pelvis (pelvis minor), which is a cylindrical cavity. The side walls of the pelvis formed by the bottom of bodies of the iliac bone ischial bone, the front wall - pubic bone, and back - sacrum and coccyx. Connecting at an angle, pubic bones form in men podlobkovy angle (angulus subpubicus), and for women the pubic arch (arcus pubis). Mid-diameter straight inlet and outlet connected to the pelvic axis of the pelvis (axis pelvis).

In place of transition in a large basin formed by a small top opening of the pelvis (apertura pelvis superior). Lower opening of the pelvis (apertura pelvis inferior) from the sides organichivayut buttocks, front - lonnoe symphysis and the lower branches of the pubic bone, and behind - the oil bone.

The structure of the pelvic bone basics most notably manifested sexual dimorphism. The reason is that women have a way to connect the device and pelvic bones are called, in addition to purely mechanical problems, to ensure the successful completion of delivery. In particular, during pregnancy, the internal cavity of the pelvis may increase due to the loosening of the cartilage mezhlobkovogo disk and, therefore, increase the symphysis.

Female pelvis wider and lower, with expanded wings to the sides of iliac bones. Lower branches of the pubic bones meet in a wide arc, and the pelvis is shaped like a wide cylinder. The upper aperture of the pelvis is similar in shape to an oval, wider symphysis and low-lying, rather than in the male pelvis.

Male pelvis, compared with women, a higher and narrower, with less than the deployed wing of the ilium. Lower branches of the pubic bones meet at a sharp angle, the pelvic cavity from the bottom visibly narrowed opposite ischial tuberosity and spine are closer to each other. The upper and lower aperture of the male pelvis are significantly different in size and shape of the aperture of the female at the expense of much more famous Cape aitch bone, and also due to the coccyx, more sharply protruding into the lumen output of the pelvis.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)