The skeleton of the free portion of the upper extremity

The skeleton of the free portion of the upper limb (pars libera membri superioris) consists of the humerus bone (humerus), beam (radius) and ulna (ulna) forearm and hand bones (carpal bones, metacarpals and phalanges).

In Fig. 25.
Humerus
A - front view;
B - back view:
1 - capitellum;
2 - a large mound;
3 - mezhbugorkovaya furrow;
4 - small tubercle;
5 - anatomical neck;
6 - deltoid tuberosity;
7 - surgical neck;
8 - the body of the humerus;
9 - groove radial nerve;
10 - coronoid fossa;
11 - radial fossa;
12 - medial epicondyle;
13 - head condyle;
14 - hole radiation process;
15 - Block humerus

Humerus - a long tubular bone, its upper (proximal) epiphysis spherical shape, articulated with the glenoid cavity scapula forms the shoulder joint. The body of the humerus, cylindrical in its upper part, gradually becoming triangular, ending in a broad, flattened in the anteroposterior direction distal epiphysis.

The upper epiphysis of the humerus, called the head of the humerus (caput himeri), separated by a narrow PickUp-how - the anatomical neck (collum anatomicum) - from large and small tubercles, separated mezhbugorkovoy groove (sulcus intertubercularis). Large tubercle (tuberculum majus) lies in the lateral plane, and the small (tuberculum minus) is directed forward. Large and small bumps are the points of attachment of muscles. In mezhbugorkovoy furrow passes the biceps tendon. The wide smooth narrowing to below tubercles, as the most weak point humerus, most at risk of fracture, has been called the surgical neck (collum chirurgicum).

The body of the humerus in the direction of downward spiral (the medial, with the transition to the rear and lateral side of the bone) is a wide groove of the radial nerve (sulcus n. radialis). On the lateral surface of the body humerus, near the top of the pineal gland, is the deltoid tuberosity (tuberositas deltoidea) , which is attached to the deltoid muscle.

The lower epiphysis of the humerus has two articular surfaces on which on both sides of the pineal gland located lateral and medial epicondyles, serving to attach the forearm muscles. The lateral articular surface provided by the spherical head of the condyle (capitulun humeri), serves for articulation with the articular surface of the radial head. The medial articular surface is cylindrical and is called a block humerus (trohlea humeri), articulated with the ulna. Above the head of the condyle is radial fossa (fossa radialis), and higher unit has two holes: the crown (fossa coronoidea) on the front surface of the bone and the olecranon fossa (fossa olecrani) on the back.

In Fig. 26.
Ulna
A - front view;
B - back view;
In - kind of the ulna:
1 - ulnar process;
2 - ginglymoidal tenderloin;
3 - radial notch;
4 - tuberosity of ulna;
5 - the interosseous margin;
6 - the front surface;
7 - distal epiphysis of the ulna;
8 - articular circumference of ulna;
9 - subulate process of ulna;
10 - posterior margin;
11 - medial surface;
12 - posterior surface;
13 - the crest of the muscle arch support
In Fig. 27.
Spoke bone
A - front view;
B - back view;
In - kind of the ulna:
1 - articular circumference of radius;
2 - head of the radius;
3 - neck of the radius;
4 - tuberosity of the radius;
5 - nutritious hole;
6 - the front surface;
7 - the cutting edge;
8 - the interosseous margin;
9 - distal epiphysis of the radius;
10 - ulnar notch of the radius;
11 - subulate appendage of the radius;
12 - lateral surface;
13 - posterior surface;
14 - posterior edge
In Fig. 28.
Proximal epiphysis of the radius and ulna
1 - ulnar process;
2 - ginglymoidal tenderloin;
3 - articular circumference of ulna;
4 - coronoid process;
5 - neck of the radius;
6 - tuberosity of the radius;
7 - tuberosity of ulna

Forearm are long tubular bones of the ulnar and radial triangular shape. These bones are touching their proximal and distal epiphysis, while their shaft bent in opposite directions, forming a forearm interosseous space, filled with a solid fibrous interosseous membrane of forearm (membrana interossea antebrachii).

Massive proximal epiphysis of the ulna has ginglymoidal notch (incisura trochlearis), whose surface is covered with articular cartilage. Ginglymoidal notch is bounded above by the olecranon (olecranon), and lower coronoid process (processus coronoideus). Tuberosity on the front surface of the bone below the coronoid process, tuberosity of the ulna is called the (tuberositas ulnae).

In Fig. 29.
The distal epiphyses of radius and ulna
1 - the front part;
2 - subulate appendage of the radius;
3 - Head of ulna;
4 - carpal articular surface;
5 - subulate process of ulna;
6 - rear

The upper and lower epiphyses of the ulna are connected with the corresponding radial epiphysis. On the lateral side of the upper epiphysis of the ulna is radial notch (incisura radialis), articular surface which articulates with the radial head, forming the proximal radioulnar joint (articulatio radioulnaris proximalis). The lower epiphysis of the ulna - head of ulna (caput ulnae) - has the articular circumference (circumferentia articularis) for articulation with the ulnar notch of the radius. Posteromedial epiphysis of the distal section of ulna ends subulate appendage (processus styloideus), the same process is at the lateral aspect of the distal epiphysis of the radius.

Radial bone has a narrow proximal epiphysis, the radial head (caput radii) ends with articular circumference (circumferentia articularis). Below the radial head is separated from her neck of the radius (collum radii), located tuberosity of the radius (tuberositas radii). It serves for the attachment of the biceps.

Massive distal epiphysis of the radius of its lower surface articulates with the bones of the wrist. On the medial side of the distal epiphysis of the radius ulna is cut, through which the radial bone articulates with the ulna. The compounds of lower ulnar epiphysis and radial bone distal radioulnar joint is formed (articulatio radio-ulnaris distalis).

The wrist has a slightly curved shape groove which is convex to the back of his hand. Carpal bones (ossa carpi) are short, irregularly shaped, arranged in two rows.

The proximal lunate series presented (os linatum), scaphoid (os scaphoideum) and triangular (os triquetrum) bones, as well as adjacent to a triangular bone with the palmar surface of the wrist pisiform bone (os pisiforme). The distal bone-series are trapezium (os trapezium), trapezius (os trapezoideum), capitate (os capitatum) and hamate (os hamatum) bone. Ellipsoidal bulge, formed by the bones of proximal row articulates with the distal epiphysis of the radius, and the bones of the distal joints of a number of broken lines are connected with the bones of the pastern.

Metacarpal bones (ossa metacarpi) curved, convexity to the back of the hand. These bones are hollow, they are distinguished basis (basis metacarpalis), body (corpus metacarpalis) and head (caput metacarpalis). By connecting the bases near the distal carpal bones, metacarpal bones articulate their heads with the bases of the phalanges.

Phalanges (phalanges) also have a body, base and crown. Grounds proximal phalanges are connected to the heads of metacarpal bones with the heads of the proximal phalanx of the base are joined distally located phalanges. All fingers, except for a large, three phalanges (proximal, middle, and distal), large (I) finger has only two phalanges.

In Fig. 30.
Back of the hand bone surface
1 - distal phalanx;
2 - middle phalanx;
3 - proximal phalanx;
4 - head of the metacarpal bone;
5 - metacarpal bone;
6 - the body of the metacarpal bone;
7 - the base of the metacarpal bone;
8 - capitatum;
9 - hamate bone;
10 - Bone-trapeze;
11 - trapezoid;
12 - navicular bone;
13 - triquetrum;
14 - lunare






List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)