Time of the upper extremity

Time of the upper extremity (cingulum membri superioris) is formed by a pair of bones clavicle (clavicula) and blade (scapula).

The clavicle is a long tubular bone S-shaped. The upper surface of the clavicle body (corpus claviculae) is smooth and has a lower surface roughness, which are attached to the ligaments connecting the clavicle to the coracoid process of scapula and I edge. The end of the clavicle, sternum mating with a handle, called sternal (extremitas sternalis), and opposite that connects to the scapula - acromion (extremitas acromialis) At the end of the sternal body clavicle is convex forward, while the acromion - back.

In Fig. 21.
Clavicle
A - top view;
B - view from below:
1 - acromial end;
2 - the body;
3 - BREAST end
In Fig. 22.
Scapula
A - front view;
B - back view;
B - lateral view:
1 - coracoid process;
2 - the upper edge;
3 - the upper angle;
4 - acromion;
5 - glenoid cavity;
6 - subscapular fossa;
7 - neck shoulder;
8 - medial edge;
9 - lateral margin;
10 - bottom corner;
11 - cutting blade;
12 - supraspinatus fossa;
13 - awn scapula;
14 - infraspinatus fossa
 
 

The shoulder blade is a flat bone, triangular, somewhat curved back. The front (concave) surface of the scapula adjacent level II-VII of edges to the back surface of the chest, forming a hole undercut (fossa subscapularis). In the subscapular fossa of the same name attached muscle. Vertical medial edge of the scapula (margo medialis) is addressed to the spine. The horizontal top edge of the scapula (margo superior) has a cutting blade (incisura scapulae), through which the transverse ligament short upper shoulder.

The lateral angle of the scapula, which articulates with the upper epiphysis of the humerus, ends with a shallow acetabulum (cavitas glenoidalis), which has an oval shape. On the front surface of the glenoid cavity is separated from the subscapularis fossa scapula neck (collum scapulae). Above the neck from the upper edge of the scapula moves curved coracoid process (processus coracoideus), acting on the front of the shoulder joint.

On the back of the shoulder, almost parallel to the top of the edge is relatively high ridge, called the spine of the scapula (spina scapulae). Above the shoulder joint forms a broad process of spine - the acromion (acromion), which protects the joint from above and behind.

Between the acromion and coracoid process coracoid is a broad-acromial ligament, which protects the shoulder joint at the top. Grooves on the back of the blade surface, above and below the spine, called the supraspinatus and infraspinatus pits contain the same name and the muscle.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)