The arteries of the upper extremity

Subclavian artery (a. subclavia) pair. Left, a longer, away from the aortic arch, right - from the brachiocephalic trunk (truncus brachiocephalicus). Each artery passes over the clavicle, forming a convex curve which passes over the dome of the pleura and the apex of the lung. Getting into the gap between the anterior and middle scalene muscles, artery reaches the edge I, it goes around and goes to the axillary artery, which lie in the armpit. Branches extending from the subclavian artery supply blood to the organs of the neck, nape of the chest wall, spinal and brain. The major ones are:

1) vertebral artery (a. vertebralis), it is rising, gives branches, bound to the spinal cord and deep muscles of the neck, then, penetrating through the foramen magnum into the cranial cavity, in the subarachnoid space (cavum subarachnoideale ), together with the same name opposite side of the artery forms an unpaired vessel - the basilar artery (a. basilaris), from which are sent to the posterior cerebral artery (aa. cerebri posteriores), taking part in the formation of a large circle of blood the brain;

2) internal thoracic artery (a. thoracica interna) is directed downwards and passing into the cavity of the chest, where it feeds the trachea, bronchi, pericardium, diaphragm, milk and thymus gland, muscles of the chest and abdomen;

3) schitosheyny trunk (truncus thyrocervicalis), which gives three branches: the lower thyroid artery (a. thyroidea inferior) goes up the front stairs muscle, allowing blood thyroid ascending cervical artery (a. cervicalis ascendens) and should be up and feeds the scalene muscle and the deep muscles of the neck, suprascapular artery (a. suprascapularis) goes outwards and slightly downwards, and supplies blood back muscles of the scapula and the infraspinatus fossa of anastomose with the artery surrounding the shoulder blade;

4) is edge-cervical trunk (truncus costocervicalis), it is divided by a deep cervical artery (a. cervicalis prufunda), supplying blood deep muscles of the neck and spinal cord, and the highest intercostal artery (a. intercostalis suprema), feeding skin and muscles of the first and second intercostal space;

5) the transverse artery of neck (a. transversa cervicis), which supplies blood muscles of the neck and upper back.

Axillary artery (a. axillaris) is a continuation of the subclavian and passes from the lower edge of the clavicle to the lower edge of the pectoralis major muscle and then passes into the brachial artery. The major vessels originating from it are:

1) the upper thoracic artery (a. thoracica superema), which supplies blood to the major and minor pectoral muscles, intercostal muscles and the mammary gland;

2) grudoakromialnaya artery (a. thoracoacromialis), she comes to the shoulder joint, muscles of the shoulder and chest;

3) The lateral thoracic artery (a. thoracica lateralis) that supply blood to tissue armpit, breast muscle, mammary gland and lymph nodes;

4) subscapular artery (a. subscapularis), nourishes the skin and muscles of the shoulder girdle, arm, shoulder and back.

Brachial artery (a. brachialis) continues the axillary artery and divides into blood vessels that nourish the skin and muscles of the arm, shoulder and elbow joints. They are:

1) a deep shoulder artery (a. profunda brachii), which is the largest branch of the brachial artery, the envelope of the humerus and supplies blood behind the back of the shoulder muscle group and most of humerus. Deep artery of arm extends in radial collateral artery (a. collateralis radialis), which anastomose with the recurrent artery (a. recurrens) from the radial artery;

In Fig. 218.
Axillary artery
1 - grudoakromialnaya artery;
2 - the upper thoracic artery;
3 - axillary artery;
4 - subscapular artery;
5 - lateral thoracic artery;
6 - brachial artery

2) the ulnar collateral artery upper (a. collateralis ulnaris superior), it provides blood anconeus, medial head of triceps brachii and the skin of this area;

3) ulnar collateral artery lower (a. collateralis ulnaris inferior), which feeds the elbow, upper arm and forearm in part.

In Fig. 219.
Artery shoulder girdle and upper arm
1 - suprascapular artery;
2 - deep artery of arm;
3 - Secondary collateral artery;
4 - radial collateral artery;
5 - upper ulnar collateral artery;
6 - recurrent radial artery
In Fig. 220.
Artery shoulder
1 - grudoakromialnaya artery;
2 - deep artery of arm;
3 - brachial artery;
4 - ulnar collateral artery upper;
5 - ulnar collateral artery lower

In the cubital fossa brachial artery gives two independent artery - ulnar (a. ulnaris) and radiation (a. radialis), located on the palmar side of the forearm. Going down along the same name the bones, the two arteries supply blood to the branch and the elbow joint, skin and muscles of the forearm. Ulnar artery gives the following branches:

1) The ulnar artery is recurrent (a. recurrens ulnaris) begins on the forearm and, in turn, is divided into anterior branch (r. anterior), which supplies the elbow and flexors, and posterior branch (r. posterior), also supplying blood elbow joint and taking part in the formation of articular elbow network (rete articulere cubiti);

2) The total interosseous artery (a. interossea communis) is almost the very beginning is divided into anterior interosseous artery (a. interossea anterior), a guide to the muscles, palmar surface of the forearm and the back of the interosseous artery (a. interossea posterior), feeding back surface;

3) The palmar carpal branch (r. carpeus palmaris), which feeds the palmar surface of the muscles in the wrist and carpal branch anastomosing with the radial artery and the dorsal carpal branch (r. carpeus dorsalis), which feeds back surface of the wrist and participates in the formation of the dorsal carpal network (rete carpi dorsale);

4) The deep palmar branch (r. palmaris profundus), together with a terminal branch of the radial artery forms the deep palmar arch (arcus palmaris profundus).

Radial artery also branched into several vessels;

1) the return radial artery (a. recurrens radislis), which goes to the elbow, shoulder and forearm muscles;

2) carpal branch (dorsal and palmar) nourish wrist area and taking part in the formation of an arterial network of the wrist;

3) the superficial palmar branch (r. palmaris superficialis), which together with the Department of the ulnar artery terminal forms a superficial palmar arch (arcus palmaris superficialis).

From the superficial palmar arch branched common finger arteries (aa. digitales palmares communes), each of which is at the level of heads of metacarpal bones anastomose with the palmar metacarpal artery, departing from the deep palmar arch, and divides into two proper palmar finger artery ( aa. digitales palmares propriae). In the fingers, they are divided on the palmar and dorsal branches and anastomose with each other (especially in the distal phalanges), so that each finger is supplied with blood by four arteries: two larger ones two hands and running along the side surfaces of the fingers of dorsal branches.

In Fig. 221.
Artery forearm and wrist palmar surface
1 - ulnar collateral artery upper;
2 - lower ulnar collateral artery;
3 - brachial artery;
4 - recurrent ulnar artery;
5 - radial recurrent artery;
6 - ulnar artery;
7 - total interosseous artery;
8 - Rear interosseous artery;
9 - anterior interosseous artery;
10 - radial artery;
11 - palmar carpal branch;
12 - deep palmar branch;
13 - superficial palmar branch;
14 - deep palmar arch;
15 - superficial palmar arch;
16 - common palmar finger arteries;
17 - Finger palmar own arteries
In Fig. 222.
Artery forearm and hand rear surface
1 - a network of articular elbow;
2 - recurrent interosseous artery;
3 - back interosseous artery;
4 - front interosseous artery;
5 - dorsal carpal network;
6 - radial artery;
7 - dorsal finger artery

 






List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)