Colon

The colon (intestinum crassum) starts from the ileocecal valve (valva ileocaecalis), formed by two horizontal folds at the junction of the ileum in the blind, and ends at the anus. It consists of three parts: the cecum , colon and rectum , whose total length is 100-150 cm, width of the cecum - 7-8 cm in the rectum - 4-5 cm in contrast to the small intestine having a pink tinge, colon gray. It continues the process of absorption of water, as well as the formation of feces from the undigested food debris, dead cells of the mucous membrane and proliferating in the gut microbes synthesize the necessary body substances.

The colon is formed by longitudinally arranged muscle bundles that are going to strip the colon (taeniae coli) (except the appendix , and rectum). Tapes are placed at different distances from each other, their width is 3-4 mm. Between the bands are formed protrusions or haustrum, colon (haustrae coli), separated from one another by transverse grooves, which are called semilunar folds of the colon (plisae semilunares coli). On the wall of the colon are packing processes (appendices epiploicae). The muscular sheath blind, colon and rectum forms two layers: an outer, longitudinal (collected in the band) and inner circle. peritoneum covers the small intestine only in certain areas. mucosa is formed by the epithelial covering, composed of cylindrical cells, the primary membrane, a layer of connective own and muscle plate of mucous membrane, which lies under the submucosa. There are no villi, but there are intestinal glands, as well as a large number of veins. In the department of pelvic rectal mucosa forms three transverse folds (plicae transversales recti), covering half the circumference of intestine. In the anal canal of the rectum forms longitudinal folds 10 - anal columns (columnae anales). Distal to them is hemorrhoids zone (zona hemorrhoidalis), closing the gap between the poles and the generator of anal sinus (sinus anales). The folds of the hemorrhoidal area, covering the bottom of the sinus are called anal valves (valvulae anales).





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)