Esophagus

Gullet (esophagus) is a direct continuation of the pharynx and is a muscular tube connecting the throat to the stomach, up to 25 cm esophagus begins at the cervical vertebra VI and ends at the XI thoracic vertebra, passing into the stomach.

In the esophagus secrete cervical, thoracic and abdominal sections. Cervical VI begins at the cervical vertebra and ends at I-II breast, lying behind the trachea. Its length is about 5 cm Thoracic, the longest (15-18 cm) and ends at the X-XI vertebrae, at the point of entry into the esophageal opening, situated in front of the thoracic vertebrae, the right of the thoracic aorta, and in contact with the trachea, the aortic arch and the left bronchus. The shortest abdomen, whose length is 1-3 cm, is located below the diaphragm, concealed by the left lobe of the liver and at the junction of the stomach expands slightly. The esophagus has a 4 and 3 bending restrictions: upper, middle (aortic) and lower.

The mucosa of the esophagus is covered by stratified squamous epithelium neorogovevayuschy and forms longitudinal folds. The muscular sheath consists of an inner (circular) and outer (longitudinal) layers. The upper third of the esophagus is formed by striated muscles, and the lower two-thirds - to be smooth. In the muscle layer and connective tissue are vascular network and nerve plexus.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)