Pharynx

Throat (pharynx) is a muscular tube and positioned in front of bodies of the cervical vertebrae from the base of the skull to the cervical vertebra level VI, which goes into the esophagus. The length of the pharynx is 12-15 cm by it bolus from the mouth passes into the esophagus. In addition, the air passes from the throat of the nasal cavity and vice versa.

The upper and lateral pharyngeal wall formed shiloglotochnoy muscle (m. stylopharyngeus), which raises the pharynx and larynx, and the striated voluntary muscles: upper pharyngeal constrictor (m. constrictor pharyngis superior), middle constrictor of the pharynx (m. constrictor pharyngis medius) and the lower pharyngeal constrictor (m. constrictor pharyngis inferior), narrowing the lumen of the pharynx. Together they represent the muscle membrane of the pharynx.

The upper wall of the pharynx called pharyngeal arch (fornix pharyngis) and attached to the outer surface of the skull base. By the side walls of the pharynx adjacent common and internal carotid arteries, internal jugular veins, nerves, big horns and hyoid bone thyroid cartilage plate. On the front surface of the throat is the entrance to the larynx, epiglottic cartilage limited front and sides - cherpalonadgortannymi folds.

Pharyngeal cavity is divided into three parts: the upper - the nose, or nose and throat (pars nasalis), medium-mouth (pars oralis) and bottom - glottal (pars laryngea). All parts are in communication with the mouth, throat, nose and pharynx with the auditory tube opening to the cavity of the middle ear. At the entrance to the pharynx lymphoid tissue accumulates, forming two palatal, two tube, lingual and pharyngeal, or adenoidnuju, tonsils. Amygdala, in turn, form the lymphatic ring, the so-called ring of Pirogov - Valdeyera.

In addition to the already described muscle membrane, pharyngeal wall formed by the mucosa and connective tissue (adventive) membranes of the pharynx. The mucosa of the pharynx is the continuation of the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth, the nose is covered with multi-row prismatic ciliated epithelium, and the rest - stratified squamous epithelium neorogovevayuschy. It adheres to the muscle membrane without forming folds, and changes in the mucous membrane of the larynx and esophagus. Connective tissue sheath is a continuation of the fascia covering the cheek muscles, and changes in connective tissue sheath of the esophagus.

In Fig. 156.
Pharyngeal cavity
1 - the threshold of the mouth;
2 - the nose of the throat (nasopharynx);
3 - the mouth;
4 - of the tonsils;
5 - genioglossal muscle;
6 - of the oropharynx;
7 - mentohyoid muscle;
8 - laryngeal part of pharynx;
9 - the larynx;
10 - esophagus;
11 - trachea
In Fig. 157.
Muscles of the pharynx
1 - choanae;
2 - lateral pterygoid muscle;
3 - muscle lifting the soft palate;
4 - a muscle strain of the soft palate;
5 - shiloglotochnaya muscle;
6 - shilopodyazychnaya muscle;
7 - medial pterygoid muscle;
8 - digastric;
9 - uvula;
10 - base of tongue;
11 - the epiglottis;
12 - velopharyngeal muscle;
13 - oblique arytenoideus;
14 - Transverse arytenoideus;
15 - Rear perstnecherpalovidnaya muscle;
16 - cricoid






List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)