Stomach

In the upper left-hand side of the peritoneum is the stomach (gaster, s. ventriculus) - the body transforms food with digestive juices. The shape and size of the stomach may vary depending on the amount of food contained therein. In general, it has the form saccular formation of about 21-25 cm and up to 3 liters. The entrance to the stomach is located at the XI thoracic vertebra, and the exit - at the XII thoracic or lumbar vertebrae I. The stomach is divided into several parts: the input section, or cardiac part (pars cardiaca), gastric body (corpus gastricum), gastric fundus (fundus gastricus), the output section, or part privratnikovuyu (pars pylorica). The upper edge of the concave stomach is called the small curvature of stomach (curvatura gastrica minor), and the lower convex - great curvature of stomach (curvatura gastrica major).

The input section begins gastric cardiac orifice (ostium cardiacum), which is a place of its junction with the esophagus . The front surface of the body of the stomach adjacent to the anterior abdominal wall and the rear surface in contact with the spleen , pancreas and left kidney with the adrenal gland. Gastric fundus is located under the left dome of the diaphragm and separated from the cardiac part of the cardiac notch (incisura cardiaca). Output section opens into the duodenum. Lesser curvature of the stomach is directed toward the lower surface of the liver , and large - to the spleen.

The wall of the gastric mucosa is formed, inner layer, a muscular, medium, and serous, outside. Serosa is an inner layer of the peritoneum covering the stomach from all sides, except for small strips of small and large curvature, where converging peritoneum formed abdominal binder stomach, and part of the stomach wall, which he comes in contact with the diaphragm. From the greater curvature down the peritoneum forms a broad fold, which descends to the pelvis and is called the omentum (omentum majus). Small gland (omentum minus) form a liver-stomach, duodenum and liver-pancreas-diaphragmatic folds that hold the stomach in a certain position within the abdominal cavity.

In Fig. 160.
The stomach and duodenum
1 - bottom of the stomach;
2 - esophagus;
3 - cardiac notch of stomach;
4 - the body of the stomach;
5 - cardiac part (input section) of the stomach;
6 - a small curvature of the stomach;
7 - a large curvature of the stomach;
8 - the upper part of the duodenum;
9 - muscle membrane of the duodenum;
10 - privratnikovaya part (output section) of the stomach;
11 - descending part of duodenum;
12 - muscle of the stomach
In Fig. 161.
Muscle of the stomach
1 - muscle membrane of the esophagus;
2 - oblique fibers of the stomach;
3 - outer longitudinal layer of muscle of the stomach;
4 - constrictor (sphincter) gatekeeper;
5 - muscle membrane of the duodenum;
6 - middle circular muscle layer of the stomach

Muscle of the stomach consists of three layers.
The outer longitudinal layer (stratum longitudinale) is a continuation of the same name of the layer of the esophagus . At the lesser curvature it reaches its greatest thickness and at the greater curvature and fundus of the stomach becomes thinner, but has a larger surface.
The average circular layer (stratum circulare) also represents a continuation of the same name of the layer of the esophagus and the stomach is completely covered. At the exit of the stomach (the pylorus at the level), it forms a bulge, called a sphincter, or sphincter, the pylorus (m. sphincter pylori).
The deep layer consists of oblique fibers (fibrae obliquae), the beams which form a separate group. In the entrance to the stomach beams cover its loop-like, going to the front and back surface of the body of the stomach. Reduced muscle loop causes the presence of cardiac notch.

The thickness of the gastric mucosa is 1.5-2 mm. Shell itself is covered by a single layer of prismatic epithelium containing gastric cancer (glandulae gastricae), consisting of parietal and mucous cells, and forms a large number of gastric folds (plicae gastricae), which are located mainly on the back wall of the stomach and having a different direction. The mucous membrane of the stomach is divided into fields (areae gastricae) ranging from 1 to 6 mm, which are gastric pits (foveolae gastricae) 0.2 mm in diameter, surrounded by fleecy folds (plise villosae). These pits are opened excretory duct openings of gastric glands.

In Fig. 162.
Gastric mucosa
1 - mucous membrane of the esophagus;
2 - cardiac orifice;
3 - gastric folds;
4 - gastric submucosa;
5 - the mucous membrane of the duodenum;
6 - gastric mucosa;
7 - muscle of the stomach






List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)