Female genital organs

Ovary (ovarium) is a paired organ, located on either side of the uterus . Ovarian mass is 5-8 g, the length ranges from 2.5 to 5 cm in the ovary and the formation of mature female germ cells. In his own position is retained ovary (lig. ovarii proprium) and suspensory (lig. suspensorium ovarii) cords of ovary. In addition, the body is attached to the broad ligament of the uterus with ovarian mesentery (mesovarium) formed at its rear edge of the peritoneum. Convex free edge of the ovary is turned back to the pelvic surface of the sacrum.

In Fig. 186.
Female: side view
1 - Fallopian tube;
2 - fimbriae of uterine tube;
3 - ovary;
4 - the body of the uterus;
5 - the uterus;
6 - the cervix;
7 - the opening of the uterus;
8 - the bladder;
9 - vagina;
10 - rectum;
11 - the urethra;
12 - the clitoris;
13 - opening of vagina;
14 - labia;
15 - labia
In Fig. 187.
Ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus
1 - bottom of the uterus;
2 - isthmus of uterine tube;
3 - a proper bunch of ovary;
4 - mesentery of ovary;
5 - ampulla of the uterine tube;
6 - fimbriae of uterine tube;
7 - abdominal opening of the uterine tube;
8 - the body of the uterus;
9 - ovary;
10 - hung a bunch of the ovary;
11 - the cervix;
12 - round uterine ligament;
13 - uterine broad ligament;
14 - vagina

Ovary formed medulla (medulla ovarii), consisting of connective tissue - the stroma of the ovary (stroma ovarii) and contains blood vessels and nerves, and the cortical substance (cortex ovarii), with many follicles, which is the egg. With the growth of ovarian primary follicles (folliculus ovaricus primarius) are transformed into mature vesicular (folliculus ovaricus vesiculosus), also called graafovymi bubbles. After ovulation, the follicle is vesicular in place a yellow body (corpus luteum), which subsequently atrophies, becoming whitish body (corpus albicans).

Fallopian tube (tuba uterina) is also a paired organ, located on either side of the uterus. Its length is 10-12 cm wide end of the uterus opens into the cavity of the peritoneum near the ovary, the narrow end - in the uterine cavity. On this basis, the organ is isolated funnel (infundibulum tubae uterinae) (Fig. 188), ampule (ampulla tubae uterinae), the isthmus (isthmus tubae uterinae), and uterine, or in-wall, part of the fallopian tube (pers uterina). The funnel of the uterine tube ends abdominal opening of the uterine tube (ostium abdominale tubae uterinae) and contains a large number bahromok fallopian tube (fimbriae tubae), one of which is attached to the ovary .

The wall of the fallopian tube is formed by the mucosa, muscular and serous coats. The mucous membrane (tunica mucosa tubae uterinae) consists of three layers and is covered by a single layer of prismatic ciliated epithelium. It forms numerous longitudinal folds of the uterine tube (plicae tubariae). Muscle membrane of the uterine tube (tunica muscularis tubae uterinae) consists of an inner circular and outer longitudinal layers of smooth muscle fibers.

The uterus (uterus) - unpaired hollow muscular organ that has a pear shape and settling down in the pelvis between the rectum and bladder . Its length in nulliparous women is 7-8 cm in parous - 8-9.5 cm in the womb occurs in utero development and childbearing. The Authority is in a tilted forward position, allowing the cervix to the body forms an obtuse angle, which opens to the side of the bladder (the so-called position-antefleksio anteversio). In his position of the uterus is fixed by means of broad uterine ligaments (lig. lata uteri), bound to its sides to the side walls of the pelvis, round uterine ligaments (lig. teres uteri) extending from the corners of the bottom of the uterus through the inguinal canal to the subcutaneous tissue of the pubis and the sacro-uterine and rectouterine ligaments.

In Fig. 188.
Ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus, rear view
1 - serosa of the uterus (perimetry);
2 - bottom of the uterus;
3 - the uterine cavity;
4 - the body of the uterus;
5 - folds of the uterine tube;
6 - funnel of the uterus;
7 - fimbriae of uterine tube;
8 - lining of the uterus (the endometrium);
9 - stroma of ovary;
10 - vesicular ovarian follicle;
11 - yellow body of ovary;
12 - myometrium (myometrium);
13 - the cervix;
14 - palmovidnye folds of the cervical canal;
15 - the cervical canal;
16 - vaginal orifice of the uterus

The uterus consists of a flattened upper division, called the bottom of the uterus (fundus uteri), the middle section - the body of the uterus (corpus uteri) and lower narrowed Department - cervical uterus (cervix uteri). On the front section of the uterine cavity (cavum uteri) has a triangular shape. In the corners of the base of the triangle, which coincides with the bottom of the uterus, fallopian tubes open. Apex of the triangle facing down the uterine cavity and passes into the cervical canal. Place transition tapers, and is called the inner hole of the uterus. The cervical canal (canalis cervicalis uteri) opens into the vagina orifice of the uterus (ostium uteri). Nulliparous women the hole is circular in shape, and in parous - a form of transverse cracks.

In Fig. 189.
Vaginal portion of the uterus
A - hole uterine nulliparous women;
B - the opening of the uterus parous women.

The wall of the uterus is formed by mucosa (endometrium), muscle (myometrium) and serous (perimetrium) shells. The mucous membrane is covered by a single layer of prismatic ciliated epithelium. On the front and rear walls of the endocervical mucosa forms longitudinal folds palmovidnye (plicae palmatae). Serosa covers the entire uterus, with the exception of the edges and a small area of the front of the neck. Around the neck under the peritoneum (serous membrane) is parauterine tissue, formed by connective tissue. It is called the parameter (parametrium). Myometrium has powerful muscles, which is due to reduction in labor the fetus is expelled outward.

In Fig. 190.
Female external genitalia
1 - anterior commissure of lips;
2 - clitoris;
3 - labia lip;
4 - external opening of the urethra;
5 - vestibule;
6 - small genital lips;
7 - the opening of vagina;
8 - hymen;
9 - fourchette;
10 - posterior commissure of lips;
11 - hole anus

During pregnancy, the uterus is gradually increasing, rising from the pelvic cavity in the abdomen.

Vagina (vagina) is a strech up, a wide upper end of which covers the cervix, the lower passes through the urogenital diaphragm and the pelvis becomes sexually active crack. The length of the vagina up to 8-10 cm behind the vagina is the rectum, in front are the urethra and bladder. With all the surrounding bodies of thick adherent vagina and loose connective tissue. The lower end of the body is directed forward and downward, the upper, extended, has a dome-shaped depression called a vaginal vault (fornix vaginae).

Muscle membrane of the vagina is formed by the inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle fibers. In this outer shell is thick and contains large amounts of elastic fibers.

Vaginal mucosa is lined by stratified squamous epithelium, and forms numerous transverse folds.

Labia (labia majora pudendi) are valikoobraznye folds of skin that are connected with each other soldering front lip (commissura labiorum anterior), located in the pubic area, and the rear soldering (commissura labiorum posterior), located in front of the anus hole.

Labia (labia minus pudendi) are the second pair of skin folds and placed between the labia lips. The available space between them called the vestibule (vestibulum vaginae). Grow together with each other, form the labia minora, labia frenulum (frenulum labiorum pudendi). Front vestibule opens into the external opening of the urethra and is located deep in the vagina opening (ostium vaginae), which closed in virgins hymen (hymen), which has small holes of various shapes and sizes.

Bulbs vestibule (bulbus vestibuli) are located on each side of the vestibule and are erectile tissues in the back end of which lie large vestibular gland (glandulae vestibulares majores).

Clit (clitoris) is located in the upper right corner of the gap and a little education with a huge amount of sensitive nerve endings. Cavernous body of the clitoris start from the lower branches of the pubic bone by two legs (crura clitoridis).

In Fig. 191.
Mammary gland
1 - body of the breast;
2 - areola of the breast;
3 - the nipple of the breast

The mammary gland (glandula mammaria), or breast (mamma), is paired organs, located on the surface of the pectoralis major muscle at the level III-IV edges and functionally closely related to the reproductive system organs. Forms of iron depends on the amount they contain fat. On the surface, the middle portion of gland readily visible pigmented areola (areola mammae), which lies at the center of the breast nipple (papilla mammaria).

In Fig. 192.
The mammary gland is a horizontal section
1 - lobules of the breast;
2 - the body of the breast;
3 - excretory milk ducts;
4 - lactiferous sinuses

The body of breast cancer (corpus mammae) of mature women formed separate slices (lo-buli glandulae mammariae) in an amount of 15-20. Lobules are separated by layers formed by loose connective and fatty tissue. At the top of the nipple milk ducts open excretory glands (ductus lactiferi). Before the mouth of the milk ducts expand to form the lactiferous sinuses (sinus lactiferus). In the sinus gland accumulates produced by milk.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)