Large and small circulation

Large and small circles of blood are formed emerging from the heart and blood vessels are closed circles.

Pulmonary circulation includes the pulmonary trunk (truncus pulmonalis) and two pairs of pulmonary veins (vv. pulmonales). It begins in the right ventricle with pulmonary trunk and then branches out into the pulmonary veins , out of the gate of light , usually two from each lung. Allocate the right and left pulmonary veins, which are distinguished among the lower pulmonary vein (v. pulmonalis inferior) and the upper pulmonary vein (v. pulmonalis superior). Veins are aircell venous blood. Enriched with oxygen in the lungs, blood returns to the pulmonary veins into the left atrium , and then enters the left ventricle.

Systemic circulation begins aorta , leaving the left ventricle. From there the blood goes to the great vessels, bound to the head, torso and extremities. Large vessels branch into smaller, which pass into intraorganic artery, and then to the arterioles, precapillary arterioles and capillaries . Through the capillaries by a continuous exchange of substances between the blood and tissues. The capillaries unite and merge into postcapillary venules, which in turn uniting to form small veins intraorganic, and the output of the bodies - vneorgannye vein. Vneorgannye veins coalesce into large venous vessels, forming the upper and lower hollow vein that carry blood back into the right atrium .

In Fig. 215.
Diagram of large and small circulation
1 - the capillaries of the head, upper parts of the trunk and upper extremities;
2 - left common carotid artery;
3 - the capillaries of the lungs;
4 - pulmonary trunk;
5 - pulmonary veins;
6 - upper hollow Vienna;
7 - aorta;
8 - the left atrium;
9 - the right atrium;
10 - left ventricle;
11 - right ventricle;
12 - celiac trunk;
13 - Lymphatic thoracic duct;
14 - total hepatic artery;
15 - left gastric artery;
16 - hepatic veins;
17 - splenic artery;
18 - capillaries stomach;
19 - the capillaries of the liver;
20 - the capillaries of spleen;
21 - Vienna gate;
22 - splenic Vienna;
23 - renal artery;
24 - Renal Vienna;
25 - capillary buds;
26 - mesenteric artery;
27 - mesenteric Vienna;
28 - lower hollow Vienna;
29 - the capillaries of the intestine;
30 - lower parts of the body capillaries and lower extremities






List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)