Brain

Brain (encephalon) is located in the cranial cavity. The average weight of the adult brain is about 1350 he has ovoidnuyu form because speakers of frontal and occipital poles.

On the outer convex surface of the brain verhnelateralnoy (facies superolateralis cerebri) are numerous and varied the length and depth of grooves (sulci cerebri). Over, but without going into them, is arachnoid of the brain. Under the occipital pole is a transverse slot of the brain, beneath which lies the cerebellum, which is a major subcortical center for motor coordination. The midline of the brain is a longitudinal slit (fissura longitudinalis cerebri), dividing it into right and left hemispheres (hemispherium cerebri dextrum et sinistrum). The lower surface (fasies inferior cerebri) is characterized by complex topography.

In the cranial spinal cord extends the medulla containing the vasomotor and respiratory centers. Vyshei downstream regions of the brain and cerebellum are connected with each other through the bridge, which is located above the medulla oblongata. The cerebellum is located posterior to these departments. From the front edge of the bridge forward and side of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain stem depart (pedunculis cerebri), limiting the interpeduncular fossa. Anterior to the mastoid fossa are the body (corpus mamillare), which are spherical and elevation related to the analyzer of smell. Anterior to the mastoid bodies are gray tubercle (tuber cinereum), which through a funnel attached appendix lower brain called the pituitary gland (hypophysis), which is a neuroendocrine organ. 12 pairs of cranial nerves located on the lower surface of the brain, belong to the peripheral nervous system.

In Fig. 253.
The brain is a vertical section
1 - the corpus callosum;
2 - arch;
3 - the thalamus;
4 - the roof of the midbrain;
5 - mastoid body;
6 - aqueduct of the midbrain;
7 - foot cord;
8 - the optic chiasm;
9 - IV ventricle;
10 - the pituitary gland;
11 - Bridge;
12 - cerebellum
In Fig. 254.
The brain is a bottom view
1 - frontal lobe;
2 - olfactory bulb;
3 - olfactory tract;
4 - the temporal lobe;
5 - the pituitary gland;
6 - optic nerve;
7 - optic tract;
8 - mastoid body;
9 - oculomotor nerve;
10 - block nerve;
11 - Bridge;
12 - the trigeminal nerve;
13 - abducens;
14 - the facial nerve;
15 - preddverno-cochlear nerve;
16 - glossopharyngeal nerve;
17 - the vagus nerve;
18 - additional nerve;
19 - hypoglossal nerve;
20 - cerebellum;
21 - the medulla oblongata
In Fig. 255.
The brain is a cross-section
1 - island;
2 - shell;
3 - fence;
4 - external capsule;
5 - globus pallidus;
6 - III ventricle;
7 - red nucleus;
8 - tire;
9 - aqueduct of the midbrain;
10 - the roof of the midbrain;
11 - hippocampus;
12 - cerebellum
In Fig. 256.
Brain frontal section
1 - the white matter of the brain;
2 - cerebral cortex;
3 - the corpus callosum;
4 - the caudate nucleus;
5 - the thalamus;
6 - the internal capsule;
7 - lenticular nucleus;
8 - shell;
9 - outside the capsule;
10 - fence;
11 - globus pallidus
In Fig. 257.
The brain is a horizontal section
1 - the internal capsule;
2 - island;
3 - fence;
4 - external capsule;
5 - optic tract;
6 - red nucleus;
7 - a black substance;
Eight - the hippocampus;
9 - foot cord;
10 - Bridge;
11 - foot average of the cerebellum;
12 - pyramidal tract;
13 - kernel olives;
14 - cerebellum

The cavities of the brain, which are remnants of brain vesicles formed during the embryonic period, are parts of the brain. Medulla, the hindbrain, which includes the cerebellum and the bridge, located in a common cavity, called the IV ventricle. The cavity of the midbrain called the plumbing of the midbrain (aquaeductus mesencephali). Under her feet are the mid-brain, and above it - paired tubercles forming quadrigeminal bodies. The cavity of the diencephalon called the III ventricle and includes the thalamus, neuroendocrine organs (pituitary gland located between the top of the hills pineal), and several other structures. The ultimate brain cerebral hemispheres are separated by spikes, the largest of which is the corpus callosum. In the interior of the hemispheres lie lateral ventricles.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)