Diencephalon

The largest division of the diencephalon (diencephalon) is paired thalamus (thalamus), also called the thalamus. The thalamus has ovoidnuyu form, free medial and upper surface and lower surface laterally it communicates with other parts of the brain. Gray matter nuclei of the thalamus is formed, of which the front due to the olfactory system, the rear - with the visual, and in the lateral nucleus to the cerebral cortex are sent to all the sensitive conductors.

As part of the thalamus is verhnezadney nadtalamicheskaya region, also called the epithalamus (epitalamus). Epithalamus forms the pineal gland, which by a leash attached to the thalamus. Pineal body (corpus pineale) is an endocrine gland, which is responsible for synchronization of biorhythms of the body with the rhythms of the environment.

Behind the thalamus are the medial geniculate body, which are sub-cortical centers of hearing, the lateral geniculate bodies, which are of the subcortical centers, as well as zatalamicheskaya area related to metatalamusu. Under the thalamus is called the hypothalamus. This area includes the mastoid body, which are sub-cortical centers of smell and pituitary gland, optic chiasm (chiasma opticum), II pair of cranial nerves, gray mound, which is the center of vegetative metabolism and thermoregulation. In the hypothalamus contains nuclei that control the endocrine and autonomic processes.

The structures of the hypothalamus limit the bottom of the cavity of the diencephalon, which is a gap between the medial surface of the thalamus called the III ventricle (ventriculus tertius).

III ventricle is limited to the front pillars of the vault, and the top covered with choroid, which is located in the front end thalamic ventricular hole penetrates the lateral ventricles, which are the cavity of the forebrain, providing a link between the lateral ventricles and the III ventricle.

All of these divisions, except the cerebellum communicates with the periphery by means of cranial nerves and have a common name of the brain stem (truncus cerebri). In the brain stem in its entirety contains the neurons of the reticular formation, which are weakly branching dendrites and axons, strongly branched, going in different directions. Due to the reticular formation is achieved the required level of activity in the cells of the cerebral cortex of the brain.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)