Endbrain

The ultimate brain (telencephalon), also known as big brain, consists of two hemispheres and is the largest division of the brain. Hemispheres are connected to each other through the corpus callosum (corpus callosum). Each hemisphere is made up of white matter (substantia alba cerebri), formed by the processes of neurons and gray matter (substantia grisea cerebri), representing a body-yuschego neurons. Part of the gray matter occurs in the sequence of the brain, close to its base, a so-called basal nuclei. The other part, coated with yuschaya white matter, called the cerebral cortex (cortex cerebri). Each hemisphere is made up of parts, separated by deep furrows. In the frontal plane is the central sulcus (sulcus centralis), which separates the frontal lobe from the parietal. An angle to it is the lateral sulcus (sulcus lateralis), which separates the frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal. Parietal-occipital sulcus (sulcus parietooccipitalis) is the boundary of the medial surface of the occipital lobe, which is almost never distinguished from neighboring parts of the convex side. Share, called the island (insula), located deep in the lateral sulcus. Smaller grooves delimit gyrus.

On sections of the brain visible caudate nucleus (nucleus caudatus) and is located lateral to the lenticular nucleus (nucleus lentiformis). The interior of the lenticular nucleus is pale globe (globus pallidus), as characterized by a lighter color, the outer part is called the shell (putamen). White layer - the outer capsule (capsula externa) - from the lenticular nucleus is separated elongated plate, called the fence (claustrum). Shell lenticular nucleus and caudate nucleus have a common name in the striatum (corpus striatum), given on the basis of general morphofunctional and developmental characteristics. Both belong to the basal nuclei and regulate autonomic functions and are the major subcortical motor centers. Along with the red nucleus and the black substance they form extrapyramidal system.

The white substance is formed by three groups of fibers:

1) The association fibers connect cortical areas within one hemisphere;

2) commissural fibers connecting the two hemispheres symmetrical sections, such as the corpus callosum, which includes most of the commissural fibers;

3) Projection fibers connect the cortex with which lie below departments: the projection of the cortex of sensory and motor centers directly from the cortical projection fibers form a radiate crown, and in between the basal nuclei and thalamus - the internal capsule (capsula interna).

In the interior of the hemispheres also are structures consisting of white and gray matter and are part of the olfactory cortex. These include the hippocampus (hippocampus), set (fornix), a transparent partition, etc.

Lateral ventricles, which are telocoele, have four of each. The anterior horn of the lateral ventricles are located in the frontal lobe cerebral hemisphere, posterior - in the occipital lobe, lower - in the temporal lobe and parietal lobe lies in the fourth section, called the central part.

The cerebral cortex is the central parts of the analyzer, which is the functional purpose of analysis and synthesis of various stimuli coming from sensory organs to the nervous system. The thickness of the cerebral cortex varies from 1.3 to 4.4 mm. Its area is 2,200 cm2, of which the convolutions on the surface is visible only to one third, the rest are hidden furrows. The cells of the cerebral cortex are arranged in six layers, each of which has its own structure and performs certain functions. Starting from the top, the first and second layers are associative, third and fourth - afferent, while the fifth and sixth - the efferent.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)