Pancreas

Pancreas (pancreas) is a large (16-22 cm in length and weighing 60-80 g) elongated digestive gland, situated behind the stomach at the XI-XII lower thoracic and I-II lumbar vertebrae. The pancreas is about the long axis of the cross, so that most of it lies on the left side of the spine . It consists of three divisions located from left to right: head (caput pancreatis), body (corpus pancreatis) and tail (cauda pancreatis). The head glands surrounded by the duodenum and the tail is on top of the left kidney and comes to the gates of the spleen . Behind the gland lie lower hollow Vienna and abdominal aorta , placed in front of her gate Vienna and superior mesenteric artery. Distinguish the front and back surface of the gland, and in the body - and the bottom surface of the front (margo anterior), upper (margo superior) and lower margins (margo inferior). The front and bottom surfaces are covered with peritoneum.

Iron is a tubular-alveolar body composed of lobules, ducts which empty into the passing along its excretory duct of the pancreas (ductus pancreaticus), connecting with the common bile duct, forming the Vater's ampulla (ampulla hepatopancreatica), and opens into the duodenum in the right side of the head gland.

The pancreatic juice produced by the basic cells of glandular lobules (exocrine part). In the parenchyma of the pancreas are the so-called pancreatic islets , or islets of Langerhans, which are clusters of cells that produce in the blood of the secrets of glucagon, insulin, etc. These islands have no ducts, and are part of the endocrine organ.

In Fig. 169.
The pancreas and duodenum
1 - spleen;
2 - abdominal aorta;
3 - the lower hollow Vienna;
4 - Vienna gate;
5 - the top edge of the pancreas;
6 - the upper part of the duodenum;
7 - the tail of the pancreas;
8 - the body of the pancreas;
9 - the upper curve of the duodenum;
10 - the cutting edge of the pancreas;
11 - the lower edge of the pancreas;
12 - jejunum;
13 - head of the pancreas;
14 - descending part of duodenum;
15 - the ascending part of duodenum;
16 - The horizontal part of duodenum;
17 - the lower curve of the duodenum






List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)