The nasal cavity
Nasal cavity (cavitas nasi) - the initial division of the respiratory apparatus. It includes an outer nose, which is also the peripheral regions of the olfactory analyzer system and nasal passages. The nasal cavity is provided with inlets, which are called nostrils (nares), and is divided into two almost symmetrical halves of the nasal septum (septum nasi), formed by irregular rectangular vertical plate of the ethmoid bone and vomer. The moving part consists of a septum cartilage of the nose.
|In Fig. 194.
1 - nasal cavity;
2 - gulp;
3 - the mouth;
4 - epiglottic cartilage;
5 - fold threshold;
6 - ventricle of larynx;
7 - vocal fold;
8 - thyroid cartilage;
9 - the larynx;
10 - trachea;
11 - bifurcation of the trachea;
12 - the principal right bronchus;
13 - left main bronchus;
14 - the upper lobe of right lung;
15 - the upper lobe of the left lung;
16 - the average of the right lung;
17 - bottom of the left lung;
18 - lower lobe of the right lung
Peredneverhnyaya wall of the nasal cavity is formed as the cartilage of the nose and the bones of the skull. The lower wall, which is hard and soft palate, separates it from the mouth. In the posterior part of the nasal cavity is equipped with nasopharyngeal holes - Joan (choanae), which open into the nasopharynx. Each half of the nasal cavity is divided into communicating with each other nasal passages extending from the sidewall of the three curved plates of bone called turbinates. In the upper nasal passage open rear pneumatic ethmoid sinus, the posterior end of the upper turbinate - the sphenoid sinus, nasal passage in the middle - anterior and middle ethmoid sinus, frontal sinus and maxillary, the so-called maxillary, sinus.
The mucosa of the nasal cavity densely adherent to the bony walls and covered with multi-row prismatic ciliated epithelium, which contains a large number of blood vessels, nerves and goblet ekzokrinotsitov. Special nerve cells found in the olfactory mucosa in the upper turbinate, lateral wall and the adjacent parts of the nasal septum.
a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)
lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)
m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)
n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)
r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)
s. — seu (or)
v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)