The trachea and bronchi

Larynx at the level of VI-VII of the cervical vertebrae goes into the windpipe, which is also called the trachea (trachea). It is a tube length of 10-15 cm and a width of 1.5-2.5 cm in the neck of her release, which is located in front of the esophagus and behind the thyroid and the thymus gland, and breast area, located behind the great vessels (aortic arch and its branches).

At level IV-V thoracic vertebra the trachea is divided into right and left main bronchi (bronchi principales dexter et sinister), respectively, bound to the right and left lung. The place of division is called bifurcation of the trachea (m) (bifurcatio tracheae). The right bronchus, more short and wide, away from the trachea at an obtuse angle and the envelope of going back to front azygos vein, and a long narrow left bronchus forms a right angle with the trachea, while passing under the aortic arch.

The basis of the trachea and main bronchi are curved tracheal cartilage (cartilagines tracheales), free ends are connected by bundles of smooth muscle cells and connective tissue plate forming the back wall of the webby trachea and bronchi - webby wall (paries membranaceus). The trachea is composed of 16-20 cartilage, left main bronchus (bronchus principalis sinister) - 9.12 out of cartilage, and the main right bronchus (bronchus principalis dexter) - from 6-8. Between an annular cartilage, ligaments connect the trachea (ligg. anularia trachealia). The inner surface of the trachea and bronchi lined with mucous membrane (tunica mucosa), which is loosely connected to the cartilage with submucosa (tela submucosa). The mucous membrane of the trachea is devoid of folds and is covered with multi-row prismatic ciliated epithelium. It contains the tracheal glands (glandulae tracheales), and in the mucosa of the bronchi - the bronchial glands (glandulae bronchiales), located mainly in the submucosa.

In Fig. 201.
The trachea and bronchi
1 - guttural boss (Adam's apple);
2 - thyroid cartilage;
3 - perstneschitovidnaya ligament;
4 - perstnetrahealnaya ligament;
5 - arched tracheal cartilage;
6 - ring binder of the trachea;
7 - esophagus;
8 - bifurcation of the trachea;
9 - the principal right bronchus;
10 - left main bronchus;
11 - aorta






List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)