Subsidiary bodies

The eyeball has a mobility due to the muscles of the eyeball (mm. bulbi). All except the inferior oblique muscle (m. obliquus inferior), come from the depths of the orbit, forming a common tendon ring (anulus tendineus communis) around the optic nerve. Rectus - the upper rectus (m. rectus superior), lower rectus (m. rectus inferior), lateral (side) muscle (m. rectus lateralis) and medial (inner) muscle (m. rectus medialis) - located on the walls of the orbit and passing through the vagina of the eyeball (vagina bulbi), penetrate into the sclera. The upper oblique (m. obliquus superior) is located over the medial rectus. The lower oblique muscle runs from the lacrimal crest through the bottom wall of the orbit and enters the lateral surface of the eyeball.

Medial and lateral muscles responsible for rotation of the eyeball to the side. The upper rectus allows rotation of the eyeball upward and outward, and the bottom line - downward and inward. Thanks to the superior oblique rotates eyeball downward and outward, and the lower oblique muscle turns it up and out. That is, as a result of contraction of the muscles can move the eyeball in all directions.

Lacrimal apparatus (apparatus lacrimalis) is responsible for the formation and excretion of tears.

Lacrimal gland (glandula lacrimalis) is located in the outer corner of eye socket verhnebokovom. Lacrimal gland ducts enter the conjunctiva, which is somewhat smaller accessory lacrimal glands, occurring in the upper and lower eyelids. Of lacrimal gland lacrimal fluid, washing the eyeball comes in tearful lake (lacus lacrimalis), which is located in the medial corner of the eye. Then, passing through the tear ducts (canaliculus lacrimalis), starting in the inner corner of eyes, she's going into the lacrimal sac (saccus lacrimalis). Hence, following the nasolacrimal duct (ductus nasolacrimalis), ending in the nasal cavity, lacrimal fluid flows into the lower nasal passage.

In Fig. 284.
The eye muscles, front view
1 - the upper rectus;
2 - the upper oblique muscle;
3 - lateral rectus;
4 - the cornea;
5 - the conjunctiva;
6 - the pupil;
7 - medial rectus;
8 - lower rectus

The eyelids (palpebrae) are folds of skin, formed by thin fibrous connective plates, and serve to protect the eyeball from external influences.

The upper eyelid (palpebrae superior) more lower (palpebrae inferior). In the open position to form the edge of the eyelids (rima palpebrarum), and the folds of skin - upper and lower vekoglaznye grooves. The upper edge of the upper eyelid is limited to the eyebrow (supercilium), which is a small, covered with hairs elevation of the skin above the upper edge of orbit.

In Fig. 285.
Muscles of the eye view from above
1 - the cornea;
2 - the eyeball;
3 - superior oblique tendon;
4 - the upper oblique muscle;
5 - medial rectus;
6 - optic nerve;
7 - upper rectus;
8 - lateral rectus;
9 - muscle lifting the upper eyelid;
10 - the total tendon ring;
11 - temporalis muscle

The outer surface is formed by age skin with loose subcutaneous tissue containing large amounts of sweat and sebaceous glands. On the inner surface of the eyelids is the mucous membrane - the conjunctiva century, which smoothly moves to the eyeball, connecting to the conjunctiva of the eyeball and tear fluid-filled form conjunctive sac (saccus conjunctivae). Thanks to all of the cornea remains moist. At the junction of the upper and lower eyelid at the inner corner of eye, lacrimal papilla is located (papilla lacrimalis), which are the upper and lower lacrimal point (puncta lacrimalia), connecting with the upper and lower tear tubule.

In Fig. 286.
Lacrimal apparatus and eyelids, front view
1 - eyebrow;
2 - the upper eyelid;
3 - eyelashes;
4 - lacrimal gland;
5 - lacrimal papilla;
6 - lacrimal point;
7 - tearful lake;
8 - the lacrimal sac;
9 - lower eyelid;
10 - lacrimal canaliculus;
11 - nasolacrimal duct

The free edge of the upper and lower eyelids are curved and connect with each other in the medial division, forming a rounded medial corner of the eye (angulus oculi medialis). On the other hand the free edges form an acute angle of the lateral eyes (angulus oculi lateralis). Located on both sides of eyelashes (cilia), and behind them in the thick plates century - the sebaceous and modified sweat glands.






List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)