The endocrine system

Endocrine system are so-called ductless glands that produce the body of physiologically active substances - hormones - and do not have ducts. Hormones can stimulate or weaken the function of cells, tissues and organs, through which the endocrine glands, together with the nervous system and operates under the control of humoral regulatory function, providing a complete work of the whole organism.

Glands are divided into endocrine and mixed. For purely endocrine glands include the pineal gland (epiphysis), neurosecretory hypothalamic nuclei of the brain, pituitary, thyroid and parathyroid glands, adrenal glands (adrenal glands). Mixed glands, in addition to emitting the hormones have a number of other functions. These include the testes, ovaries, placenta, pancreas and thymus (see "The bodies immune system.") The placenta and the interstitial cells of male (testes) and female (ovaries) gonads are involved in regulating the functions of the reproductive system. In addition, there have recently been studied in cells that produce hormones, which are contained in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, respiratory tract and other organs. These cells have a local effect, regulating the work of the organs in which located.

In Fig. 244.
Diagram of the endocrine glands
1 - the pineal gland;
2 - the pituitary gland;
3 - the parathyroid gland;
4 - thyroid gland;
5 - thymus;
6 - adrenal gland;
7 - medulla adrenal gland;
8 - adrenal gland cortical substance;
9 - pancreas;
10 - Egg
In Fig. 245.
Male sex gland
1 - the spermatic cord;
2 - muscle lifting testicle;
3 - testicular artery;
4 - the vas deferens;
5 - testicular vein;
6 - egg
In Fig. 246.
Female genital cancer
1 - Fallopian tube;
2 - the uterus;
3 - ovarian artery;
4 - ovarian vein;
5 - ovary;
6 - uterine broad ligament;
7 - vagina

In addition, the mixed glands include the chromaffin organs (paraganglia), which are clusters with cells that are genetically related to the nodes of the autonomic nervous system. They are located in different parts of the body, forming a permanent and nonpermanent clusters chromaffin tissue. To include a constant intercarotid chromaffin body, which is located at the site of division of the common carotid artery on the inside and outside, nadserdechnye paraganglia occurring in the aortic arch and at the exit site left coronary artery, lumbar paraganglia are localized at anterolateral surface of the abdominal aorta. Paraganglia are fickle, located in the course of individual blood vessels in the retroperitoneal tissue and in the apex of coccyx.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)