The lymphatic system

The lymphatic system is part of the cardiovascular system and adds to venous, is involved in metabolism, cleanses the cells and tissues. It consists of limfonosnyh ways, performing transport functions, and immune system organs that perform the functions of immune and biological protection.

The smallest structural unit of the lymphatic system are lymphatic capillaries, which, unlike blood, begin blindly. Lymphatic capillaries are endothelial tubes of various shapes and diameters, with no basement membrane and forming a lymphatic plexus by connecting with each other. Lymph postkapillyary - larger ones containing valves. They move into the lymphatic vessels (vasa lymphatica), which are divided into intraorganic and vneorgannye and have a large number of paired semilunar valves that do not allow reverse current of lymph.

The largest lymphatic vessels, which are located along the veins and arteries, known as collectors. They collect lymph from large parts of the body, limbs and internal organs. Lymphatic vessels are classified according to localization of the deep (vasa lymphatica profunda), located mainly along the blood vessels, and surface (vasa lymphatica superficialia), lying in the subcutaneous tissue, as well as to bring (vasa afferentia) and efferent (vasa efferentia) depending the movement of lymph in relation to the lymph nodes (nodi lymphatici). After passing the last on the way of regional lymph node lymph collectors form the trunks (trunci lymphatici), and they are united in the lymph ducts (ductus lymphatici), which then flow into the vein.

From the lower extremities and pelvic lymph passes on the right and left lumbar trunks (truncus lumbalis dexter et sinister), and from the abdominal cavity - in the intestinal trunk (truncus intestinalis). Level II lumbar vertebra trunks merged into the thoracic duct (ductus thoracicus). At the beginning of the thoracic duct, whose length can vary from 20 to 40 cm, there is a small extension, called the thoracic duct cistern (cisterna chyli). Itself through the aortic thoracic duct enters the aperture of the abdomen into the chest, where the level of V-III turns to the left thoracic vertebrae, penetrating into the neck, and forms an arc. Then the thoracic duct empties into the left subclavian vein formed by the left jugular vein and the left venous angle.

Lymph from the left half of chest wall and collects bronhosredostenny left trunk (truncus bronchomediastinalis), from the left side of the head and neck - left jugular trunk (truncus jugularis sinister), and from the left hand - the left subclavian trunk (truncus subclavius sinister). They all flow into the neck of the thoracic duct. They correspond to three of the same name right barrel, collect lymph from organs and the walls of the right half of the chest, the right side of the head and neck and right arm. The Right lymphatic trunks empty into the right lymphatic duct (ductus lymphaticus dexter), which in turn flows into the right venous angle. The length of the right lymphatic duct is no more than 1-1.5 cm





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)