Lymphoid tissue of the walls of respiratory and digestive systems

The accumulation of lymphoid tissue containing diffusely located on the background of the cellular elements of the follicles, which are more dense (nodular) cluster of cells called the tonsils (tonsillae). Tonsils have schiesya-primary parts of the respiratory and digestive tubes are lingual, pharyngeal and palatine tonsils. Tonsils, which lie in the mouth of the auditory tube, called the tube.

Of the tonsils (tonsilla palatina) pair. It is located in mindalikovoy fossa, which is a slight indentation between the palato-guttural and palatal-lingual folds of the mouth, and attached to it to its lateral edge. At the free surface is located medial to 20 crypts, which are deeper in the mucosa. In the working tissue of the palatine tonsils contain lymphoid nodules. Lymphocytes are free to move from the interior of the amygdala in the mucous membrane and the free surface. The shape of the palatine tonsils has led to the very name of the body, as reminiscent of almonds.

The lingual tonsil (tonsilla lingualis) is located under the epithelium of the mucous membrane of the tongue. Lymphoid nodules lingual tonsil have bright centers and form about 80-90 tubercles on the surface of the tongue, lifting his mucous membranes. Between the tubercles arranged crypts, in which open ducts of mucous glands of the language.

Pharyngeal tonsil (tonsilla pharyngealis), also called adenoid, lies in the upper part of the posterior pharyngeal wall and in the vault of the pharynx. The mucous membrane, covering-tries pharyngeal tonsil, forming numerous transverse folds in the furrows between them open ducts of pharyngeal glands. Under the epithelium of the mucous membrane in the diffuse nature of lymphoid tissue concentrated lymphoid nodules.

Tubal tonsil (tonsilla tubaria) pair. It is located behind the mouth of the pharyngeal opening of auditory tube mucosa of the nasal pharynx. In place of its occurrence is formed tube roller. The number of lymphoid nodules of lymphoid tissue in the tubal tonsils slightly.

Group lymphoid nodules of the appendix (noduli lymphatici aggregati appendicis vermiformis) are located in the mucosa and submucosa through the walls of the appendix and form almost a single layer. Group lymphoid nodules consist of a single lymphoid nodules, which are located, usually in 2-3 rows. Total number of isolated nodules of up to 500. At the age of 16-18 years, the number of nodules decreases, due to age-related changes, and after 60 years of nodules are isolated.

Group lymphoid nodules of the ileum (noduli lymphatici aggregati) located on the side protivobryzheechnoy ileum, the mucosa and submucosa. Their number varies from 30 to 40 pieces, and the length from 0.5 to 8 cm They have a flattened elongated shape, are arranged along the longitudinal axis of the intestine and form a bulge, lifting the mucosa. For this reason, rectal mucosa covering lymphoid nodules group, devoid of folds and is characterized by a lighter color. Lymphoid tissue nodules formed by single group of lymphoid nodules. With age, the number of group lymphoid nodules and their size is reduced, and they form the convexity becomes less distinct. By age group lymphoid tissue lymphoid nodules becomes diffuse.

Solitary lymphoid nodules of the ileum (noduli lymphatici solitarii) located in the mucosa and submucosa through the walls of the respiratory tube (larynx, trachea, bronchi), the digestive tube (pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon) and in the gallbladder. Solitary lymphoid nodules are surrounded by reticular fibers, which separate them from surrounding tissue.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)