Bladder

Bladder (vesica urinaria) is located at the bottom of the pelvis, adhering to it by its lower division. The shape and size of the body variable and depend on the volume of the contained urine. Body capacity is 700-800 cm3. Before the bubble is pubic symphysis, behind the men deposited the seminal vesicles and rectum, and for women - the uterus and upper vagina.

In the bladder, the bladder is isolated body (corpus vesicae), tip (apex vesicae), bottom (fundus vesicae) and neck (collum vesicae).

The wall of the bladder is formed adventive, mucous, muscular and partly serous membranes. The mucous membrane forms numerous folds and lined with transitional epithelium. In the anterior bladder three holes, two of which represent the openings of ureters (ostia ureterum), and the third is the internal urethral orifice (ostium urethrae infernum). Triangle is formed between the holes ureter (trigonum ureteris), mucous membrane which has no submucosa, devoid of folds and tightly fused with the muscle membrane.

The muscular sheath formed by three layers of smooth muscle fibers: an outer longitudinal, middle circular and inner longitudinal. All fibers are closely related to each other. In the area of the bladder neck around the inner opening of urethra middle layer of muscle membrane forms a muscular sphincter.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)