The system of the inferior vena cava

The system of the inferior vena cava is formed by blood vessels that collect blood from the walls and the abdominal cavity and pelvis, as well as from the lower extremities. The lower hollow Vienna (v. cava inferior) starts at the right anterolateral surface of the IV-V of the lumbar vertebrae. It is formed by merging the right and left common iliac veins (vv. iliacae communes dextra et sinistra). Her left side is in contact with the abdominal aorta , the rear surface - from the diaphragm . Going up and going through the aperture of the same name, the outer hollow cavity in Vienna penetrates the pericardium and into the right atrium. Flowing in her blood vessels are divided into parietal and splanchnic veins.

By the parietal veins include:

1) The lumbar veins (vv. lumbales) in the number four on each side, take the blood from the venous plexus of the spine, skin and muscles of the back;

2) lower diaphragmatic veins (vv. phrenicae inferiores), accompanied by the same name of the artery and collecting blood from the lower surface of the diaphragm.

The group of splanchnic veins include:

1) The testicular veins (vv. testiculares), receiving blood from the testicular parenchyma; women - ovarian veins (vv. ovaricae), serving the ovaries;

2) renal Vienna (v. renalis), formed by the merger of three or four veins coming out of the gate kidneys, and collects blood from the fatty capsule of the kidney and ureter;

3) the adrenal veins (vv. supraspinales), which are formed from the merger of the veins, leaving the adrenal gland, and blood is taken from the adrenal gland;

4) hepatic veins (vv. hepaticae), taking blood coming out of the capillaries of the hepatic artery and portal vein, while blood from the median abdominal comes first in the portal vein, and then to the liver, and thence by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava.

Vienna Gate (v. portae hepatis) is located behind the head of the pancreas at the confluence of inferior mesenteric vein, superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein. Going up and right to the gates of the liver , Vienna gate falls into the thick stomach and receives the veins of the stomach, pancreas and pylorus.

Inferior mesenteric Vienna (v. mesenterica inferior) begins in the pelvic cavity. It receives blood from the walls of the upper part of the rectum , sigmoid and descending colon . The branches of the inferior mesenteric vein offshoots of the same name in full compliance of the artery.

In the superior mesenteric vein (v. mesenterica superior) join the venous vessels of the small intestine and its mesentery, ascending and transverse colon, the cecum and appendix . These include the ilio-colon-intestinal Vienna (v. ileocolica), right and middle colic-intestinal veins (vv. colicae dextrae et media), jejunal vein and ileum (vv. intestinales jejunales et ilii), gastro-epiploic vein ( vv. gastroepiploicae).

In the splenic vein (v. splenica) receives blood from the spleen, stomach, pancreas, omentum and duodenum.

In Fig. 236.
Scheme of the portal vein and inferior vena cava
1 - lower hollow Vienna;
2 - anastomosis between the branches of the portal vein and superior vena;
3 - hepatic Vienna;
4 - Vienna gate;
5 - splenic Vienna;
6 - superior mesenteric Vienna;
7 - lower mesenteric Vienna;
8 - common iliac Vienna;
9 - external iliac Vienna;
10 - internal iliac Vienna;
11 - anastomosis between the branches of the portal vein and inferior vena

All the venous blood from the walls of the pelvis and enters the common iliac vein (v. iliaca communis), which is formed at the confluence of the internal iliac vein (v. iliaca interna) and external iliac vein (v. iliaca externa). The vessels, which form the internal iliac vein, divided into parietal and splanchnic.

Parietal branch of the same name was escorted by two arteries. These include upper and lower gluteal veins (vv. gluteae superiores et inferiores), obturator veins (vv. obturatoriae), the lateral sacral veins (vv. sacrales laterales). Together, they take blood from the pelvic girdle and thighs, as well as part of the abdominal muscles.

Splanchnic vein include internal sex vein (v. pudenda interna), which collected blood from the perineum , vulva and urethra, vesico veins (vv. vesicales), taking blood from the bladder , seminal vesicles, vas deferens, prostate cancer in men and vaginal in women (women of fallopian veins (vv. uterinae) flowing venous blood from the uterus ), as well as the lower and middle rectal veins (vv. rectales inferiores et mediae), bound to the internal iliac vein from the walls of the rectum . Anastomoziruya with each other, blood vessels form around the pelvic urocystic, rectal, prostate, uterine and vaginal venous plexus.

Leg veins anastomose with each other, are divided into groups of superficial and deep vessels.

Superficial veins of the lower extremity are the subcutaneous blood vessels, which are in the form of the foot plantar venous network of foot (rete venosum plantare pedis) and the back foot venous network (rete venosum dorsale pedis). These networks are intertwined finger veins of the foot (vv. digitales pedis). Dorsal metatarsal veins (vv. metatarseae dorsales pedis) belonging to the network, provide two large vessels, which are the beginning of the large and small hidden, or subcutaneous, vein. Most hidden Vienna (v. saphena magna) begins on the back foot and venous network is an extension of the medial dorsal metatarsal veins. Rising on the medial surface of the tibia and femur, it collects the superficial veins, heading away from the skin, and empties into the femoral vein (v. femoralis). Small hidden Vienna (v. saphena parva) begins on the outside of the back of the subcutaneous venous network of foot and, rounding the back of the lateral ankle and up the back of the leg to the popliteal fossa, joins the popliteal vein (v. poplitea).

Deep veins of the lower extremity of the same name on two accompanying arteries start to the plantar surface of the foot plantar finger veins (vv. digitales plantares), which in turn merge to form the plantar metatarsal veins and dorsal foot (vv. metatarseae plantares et dorsales pedis). Metatarsal veins empty into the plantar venous arch (arcus venosus plantaris) and the back of the venous arch (arcus venosus dorsalis). The plantar venous arch conveys blood to the medial and lateral marginal veins, which form the posterior tibial veins (vv. tibiales posteriores), and partly into the veins of the dorsum of the foot. The back arc venous blood passes into the anterior tibial veins (vv. tibiales anteriores). Front and rear tibial veins pass through the legs, blood is collected from the bones and muscles , and then merge into the upper third of the leg, forming the popliteal vein.

In the popliteal vein (v. poplitea) joins several minor knee veins (vv. genus) and a small concealed, or subcutaneous, Vienna tibia (v. saphena parva). When moving to Vienna becomes the popliteal hip hip.

Femoral Vienna (v. femoralis) is directed upwards, passing under the inguinal ligament and collecting vessels, which should be the blood from the muscles and fascia hip, pelvis, hip, external genitalia, and lower parts of the anterior abdominal wall . These are deep hips Vienna (v. profunda femoris), vulva veins (vv. pudendae externae), most hidden Vienna (v. saphena magna), superficial epigastric Vienna (v. epigastrica superficialis), Vienna surface surrounding the iliac bone (v. circumflexa ilium superficialis). In the area of the inguinal ligament femoral Vienna goes into the iliac vein (v. iliaca externa).

In Fig. 237.
Diagram of the lower extremity veins
1 - lower hollow Vienna;
2 - Total hip Vienna;
3 - internal iliac Vienna;
4 - external iliac Vienna;
5 - superficial epigastric Vienna;
6 - Vienna surface surrounding the iliac bone;
7 - external genitalia veins;
8 - Vienna deep thigh;
9 - Vienna femur;
10 - Knee veins;
11 - popliteal Vienna;
12 - Hidden Vienna tibia;
13 - anterior tibial vein;
14 - posterior tibial veins;
15 - a big hidden Vienna;
16 - back of the venous arch;
17 - dorsal metatarsal veins;
18 - Finger vein of foot

The major superficial and deep veins have valves and widely anastomose with each other. Systems of lower and upper hollow vein constantly communicate with each other, connecting with the veins of the anterolateral wall of the trunk, the median and poluneparnyh veins, internal and external vertebral venous plexus and anastomoses forming pronounced.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)