The system of the superior vena cava

System form the superior vena cava blood vessels that collect blood from the head, neck, upper extremity, and the walls of the chest and abdominal cavities. The very top is hollow Vienna (v. cava superior) is located in the anterior mediastinum, behind the rib cartilage I have the sternum, and incorporates a number of large vessels.

External jugular Vienna (v. jugularis externa) collects blood from the head and neck. It is located under the auricle at the angle of the mandible and formed confluent posterior auricular vein and vein zanizhnechelyustnoy. In the course of external jugular vein in her fall the following vessels:

1) posterior auricular Vienna (v. auricularis posterior) takes blood from the retroauricular area;

2) Occipital Vienna (v. occipitalis) collects blood from the occipital region of the head;

3) The suprascapular Vienna (v. suprascapularis) takes the blood that comes from the suprascapular skin of the neck;

4) anterior jugular Vienna (v. jugularis anterior) is responsible for collecting blood from the skin chin and front neck area with the same name anastomose vein opposite side, forming the jugular venous arch (arcus venosus juguli), and in the clavicle empties into the subclavian or internal jugular, vein.

Internal jugular Vienna (v. jugularis interna) begins near the jugular opening the skull, and sent down with the common carotid artery and vagus nerve forms a neurovascular bundle neck. It flows into the branches are divided into intracranial and extracranial.

Intracranial veins are:

1) The veins of the brain (vv. cerebri), collecting blood from the cerebral hemispheres;

2) The meningeal veins (vv. meningeae), serving the lining of the brain;

3) diploicheskie veins (vv. diploicae), in which blood collected from the bones of the skull;

4) ophthalmic veins (vv. ophthalmicae), receiving blood from the eyeball, lacrimal glands, eyelids, orbit, nasal cavity, the area outside of the nose and forehead.

In Fig. 233.
Diagram of the upper and lower hollow vein
1 - anterior jugular Vienna;
2 - external jugular Vienna;
3 - suprascapular Vienna;
4 - internal jugular Vienna;
5 - jugular venous arch;
6 - brachiocephalic Vienna;
7 - subclavian Vienna;
8 - axillary Vienna;
9 - aortic arch;
10 - upper hollow Vienna;
11 - imperial Vienna;
12 - left ventricle;
13 - right ventricle;
14 - Vienna head arms;
15 - Shoulder Vienna;
16 - posterior intercostal veins;
17 - Renal Vienna;
18 - testicular vein;
19 - the right ascending lumbar Vienna;
20 - lumbar vein;
21 - lower hollow Vienna;
22 - median sacral Vienna;
23 - total hip Vienna;
24 - lateral sacral Vienna;
25 - internal iliac Vienna;
26 - external iliac Vienna;
27 - superficial epigastric Vienna;
28 - male sexual Vienna;
29 - a big hidden Vienna;
30 - Vienna femur;
31 - Vienna deep thigh;
32 - Vienna obturator

Collected by these veins carry blood into the sinuses of the dura mater (sinus durae matris), which represent the venous vessels, which differ from the structure of the vein wall, formed by sheets of dura mater, do not contain muscle cells and nespadayuschimisya. The main sinuses of the brain are:

1) The superior sagittal sinus (sinus sagittalis superior), runs along the top edge of a large crescent ridge of the dura mater and empties into the right transverse sinus;

2) the lower sagittal sinus (sinus sagittalis inferior), guided along the lower edge of a large crescent ridge and flows directly into his bosom;

3) The straight sinus (sinus rectus), which runs along the junction of the crescent of the brain with a tent of the cerebellum and poured into the transverse sinus;

4) The cavernous sinus (sinus cavernosus), are paired and are located around the sella. She teams up with the upper rocky bosom (sinus petrosus superior), rear edge of which merges with the sigmoid sinus (sinus sigmoideus), overlying the sigmoid sinus in the groove of the temporal bone;

5) the transverse sinus (sinus transversus), which is a pair (right and left) and runs along the rear edge of the gallop of the cerebellum. She is occurring in the lateral sulcus of occipital bone joins the sigmoid sinus, which passes into the internal jugular sinus.

By the extracranial branches of the internal jugular vein include:

1) Front Vienna (v. facialis), which collects blood from the skin of the forehead, cheeks, nose, lips, mucous membrane of the pharynx, nose and mouth, facial and masticatory muscles, the soft palate and tonsils;

2) zanizhnechelyustnaya Vienna (v. retromandibularis), into which the veins coming from the scalp of the auricle, parotid gland, lateral surface of the face, nasal cavity, masticatory muscles and mandibular teeth.

In the transition to the neck in the jugular vein join:

1) the pharyngeal veins (vv. pharyngeales), receiving blood from the walls of the pharynx;

2) lingual Vienna (v. lingualis), which receives blood from the tongue, the muscles of the mouth, the sublingual and submandibular glands;

3) the upper thyroid veins (vv. thyroideae superiores), collecting blood from the thyroid gland, larynx, and sternocleidomastoid muscle.

Behind the sternum-clavicular joints Vienna internal jugular vein merges with the subclavian (v. subclavia), which collects blood from all parts of the upper extremity, forming a pair brachiocephalic vein (v. brachiocephalica), collecting blood from the head, neck and upper extremities. Veins of the upper extremity are divided into superficial and deep.

Superficial veins are located in the subcutaneous tissue on the fascia of the muscles of its own upper limb, heading, regardless of the deep veins, and take blood from the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Their roots are a network of vessels in the palm and dorsum of hand. From the most developed network of venous back of the hand (rete venosum dorsale manus) originates headache, or lateral subcutaneous, Vienna hands (v. cephalica). It rises from the radial (lateral) edge of the forearm, passes on its front surface and, on reaching the elbow, anastomose with the royal, or medial subcutaneous, vein hands with intermediate veins elbow (v. intermedia cubiti). Then the parent goes to Vienna arm lateral part of the shoulder, and reaching the subclavian area, flows into the axillary vein.

The Tsar's Vienna (v. basilica) is a large cutaneous vessel, beginning as headache Vienna, from the back of the hand venous network. It goes along the back surface of the forearm, a smooth transition to its front surface, while at the elbow is connected to the intermediate vein of the elbow and up the medial aspect of the shoulder. At the level of the boundary between the lower and middle thirds of the shoulder imperial Vienna joins the shoulder.

In Fig. 234.
Diagram of veins of head and neck
1 - diploicheskie veins;
2 - superior sagittal sinus;
3 - the veins of the brain;
4 - the lower sagittal sinus;
5 - straight sinus;
6 - cavernous sinus;
7 - Ophthalmic Vienna;
8 - upper stony bosom;
9 - transverse sinus;
10 - sigmoid sinus;
11 - posterior auricular Vienna;
12 - occipital Vienna;
13 - pharyngeal Vienna;
14 - zanizhnechelyustnaya Vienna;
15 - lingual Vienna;
16 - Front Vienna;
17 - internal jugular Vienna;
18 - anterior jugular Vienna;
19 - upper thyroid Vienna;
20 - external jugular Vienna;
21 - suprascapular Vienna;
22 - brachiocephalic veins;
23 - upper hollow Vienna
In Fig. 235.
Diagram of the upper limb veins
1 - external jugular Vienna;
2 - suprascapular Vienna;
3 - internal jugular Vienna;
4 - subclavian Vienna;
5 - brachiocephalic Vienna;
6 - axillary Vienna;
7 - Rear intercostal vein;
8 - humeral vein;
9 - Vienna head arms;
10 - imperial Vienna;
11 - Ray veins;
12 - ulnar vein;
13 - deep venous palmar arch;
14 - superficial palmar venous arch;
15 - Finger palmar vein

The deep veins accompany the arteries of the upper extremity with two each. Their roots are venous network of the palmar surface, formed by finger palmar veins (vv. digitales palmares), which flow into the superficial and deep palmar venous arch (arcus venosi palmares superficiales et profundus). Veins, extending from the palmar arches, pass on the forearm and elbow form two veins (vv. ulnares) and two radial veins (vv. radiales), anastomosing with each other. Ulnar and radial veins absorb the veins coming from the muscles and bones, and unite in the radial holes in the two shoulder veins (vv. brachiales). In the humeral veins empty into the veins that collect blood from the skin and muscles of the shoulder and armpit on both the shoulder vein axillary vein form (v. axillaris). In the axillary vein flow into the veins taking blood away from the muscles of the shoulder girdle , shoulder muscles and partly from the muscles of the back and chest muscles . At the level of the outside edge of the edge I axillary Vienna empties into the subclavian, lateral collecting vein neck (v. transversa cervicis), and suprascapular vein (v. suprascapularis), which is accompanied by the same name artery .

Veins of the upper limb are the valves. In the subclavian vein are two. Its confluence with the internal jugular vein on each side is called the venous angle (left and right). At the confluence of brachiocephalic veins are formed, which veins take the bound of the neck muscles , thymus and thyroid glands, trachea , mediastinum, pericardium, esophagus , chest wall, spinal cord , as well as left and right intercostal vein highest (vv. intercostales supremae sinistra et dextra), collecting blood from the intercostal spaces of the same name and associated arteries.

For the cartilage of the right ribs and sternum I brachiocephalic veins join to form the main trunk of the superior vena cava. The very top is hollow Vienna has no valves. Level II edges it passes into the cavity of the heart bag and empties into the right atrium . In the course of its flow into the vein that collects blood from the pericardium and mediastinum, as well as unpaired Vienna (v. azygos), which is a continuation of the right ascending lumbar vein (v. lumbalis ascendentis dextra) and takes the blood coming from the walls of the thoracic and abdominal cavities. In the azygos vein flow into the veins leading from the bronchi and esophagus, posterior intercostal veins (vv. intercostales anteriores), collecting blood from the intercostal spaces, and poluneparnaya Vienna (v. hemiazygos). In poluneparnuyu vein and infused veins of the esophagus, including walls and part-posterior intercostal veins.





List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)