Facial muscles

During the facial muscles to reduce the displacement of certain areas of the skin and changes in facial expressions. Facial muscles also reduce or increase the natural orifices face: mouth, eyes and nostrils.

Each muscle or muscle groups perform their functions.

Zatylochnolobnaya muscle (m. occipitofrontalis) is divided into two parts: the occipital belly (venter occipitalis) and the frontal belly (venter frontalis). Cutting, occipital belly shifts your scalp with the epicranial aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica), which is a thick plate of tendons, located under the skin of the head, back to the nape of the neck, abdomen and frontal forms a transverse wrinkles on the forehead, while raising the eyebrows and expanding the eye slit. Occipital belly is the starting point at the upper nuchal line of occipital bone, and attached to the posterior part of the tendon helmet. Skulls abdomen begins in the tendon is attached to the helmet and the skin of eyebrows.

Muscle namorschivayuschaya eyebrow (m. corrugator supercili), while reducing shifts his eyebrows down and slightly inward to the nose. At the same time formed two deep longitudinal folds over the bridge coming from the eyebrows up. Start point of the muscle is located on the frontal bone over the lacrimal bone, and place attachment - in the skin of the eyebrows.

The circular muscle of the eye (m. orbicularis oculi) consists of three parts: the ophthalmic (pars orbitalis), lacrimal (pars lacrimalis) and secular (pars palpebralis).

With the reduction of the orbital muscle transverse folds are smoothed forehead, eyebrows lowered and narrowed eye slit. With the reduction of the age-old eye muscles completely closes the gap. Lacrimal part, contracting, expanding the lacrimal sac. Uniting all three parts of the muscles located on an ellipse. Starting point of all the parts located on the bones of the medial corner of the eye. The orbital part of the muscle forms a ring, lying along the upper and lower edges of the orbit, lacrimal part goes around the lacrimal sac covering his front and rear, and the age-old lies in the skin of the eyelids.

Ear muscles consist of three muscles: the anterior (m. auricullares anterior), posterior (m. auricullares posterior) and upper (m. auricullares superior). The front and top are covered with muscle fascia temporalis. These muscles in man is practically not developed. If they are reducing the pinna slightly shifted forward, backward and upward. Start point is the auricular muscle epicranial aponeurosis, and the place of attachment - leather ear.

Nasal muscle (m. nasalis) is divided into two parts: krylnuyu (pars transversa) and transverse (pars alaris). This muscle is also poorly developed. With the reduction of falls krylnoy wing of the nose, reducing the transverse narrow nasal aperture. Starting point is the muscles of the upper jaw in alveolar incisor and canine teeth. Mounting position of the muscles krylnoy located on the skin of the wing of the nose, and the transverse part - on the nose, where it connects with the opposite muscle.

In the cheekbone produce a small zygomatic muscle (m. zygomaticus minor) and zygomaticus major muscle (m. zygomaticus major). Both muscles shift the corners of the mouth upward and outward. Starting point of the muscles located on the lateral surface of the zygomatic and temporal bones at the site of attachment to the circular muscles interwoven muscle of mouth and grow into the skin side of his mouth.

Buccal muscle (m. buccinator) with a reduction pulls back corners of the mouth, and presses her lips and cheeks to the teeth. This muscle is the basis of the cheeks. The muscle begins at the outer surface of the upper and lower jaw in the area of the alveoli, the krylonizhnechelyustnogo seam, and is attached to the skin of the lips and corners of the mouth, woven into the muscles of the upper and lower lips.

Muscle of laughter (m. risorius), casual, its purpose is to stretch over the mouth to the side. Starting point is located in the skin near the nasolabial fold and chewing fascia, and the place of attachment - in the skin of the mouth corners.

Circular muscle of the mouth (m. orbicularis oris) is a muscle bundles, communities located in the thick lips. With the reduction of the circular muscle closes the mouth and lips are stretched forward. Starting point is located in the skin side of his mouth, and place attachment - in the skin in the midline.

Muscle lifting the upper lip (m. levator labii superioris), contracting, lifts the upper lip and nasolabial fold makes it more profound. The muscle begins at the infraorbital margin of upper jaw and is attached to the skin of the nasolabial fold.

In Fig. 92.
  Facial and masticatory muscles
1 - epicranial aponeurosis;
2 - temporal fascia;
3 - temporalis muscle;
4 - occipito-frontal muscle: a) frontal abdomen, b) occipital belly;
5 - muscle namorschivayuschaya brow;
6 - circular muscle of the eye;
7 - Rear auricular muscle;
8 - nasal muscle: a) krylnaya part, b) transverse section;
9 - jaw muscles: a) small zygomatic muscle, b) the zygomaticus major muscle;
10 - muscle lifting the upper lip;
11 - muscle lifting the corner of his mouth;
12 - buccal muscle;
13 - circular muscle of the mouth;
14 - masseter;
15 - muscle, lowered corner of the mouth;
16 - mentalis;
17 - muscle, dropped his lower lip

Muscle lifting the corner of the mouth (m. levator anguli oris), along with the cheek muscles displaces the corners of her mouth upward and outward. Starting point is Klykova fossa of the maxilla, and the place of attachment - in the skin side of his mouth.

Muscle, lowered the angle of the mouth (m. depressor anguli oris), while reducing shifts the corners of your mouth down, and sideways. Starting point is the muscle on the anterior surface of the mandible under the chin opening. Mounting position of individual beam lies in the interior of the upper lip, the rest are woven into the skin side of his mouth.

Muscle, dropped his lower lip (m. depressor labii inferioris) pulls down his lower lip. This muscle is covered by muscle, the lowering angle of mouth; start point is the front surface of the lower jaw in front chin hole and place attachment - the skin of the chin and lower lip.

Mentalis (m. mentalis) with a reduction tightens the skin of the chin upwards, forming a dimple. The muscle is partially covered by muscle, the lowering the upper lip; begins on alveolar eminences incisors of the mandible and is attached to the skin of the chin.

List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)