Shoulder muscles

Shoulder muscles are divided into anterior (mostly flexor) and posterior (extensor) groups.

The front group

Biceps (m. biceps brachii) flexes the forearm at the elbow and rotates it outward, raising his hand. Rounded fusiform muscle, consisting of two heads (due to the long head (caput longum) by allocating the hands, due to the short head (caput breve) - its cast) and is located in the shoulder and the elbow directly beneath the skin. The long head start on the mound epiarticular blades, and short - of the scapula the coracoid process.

Head connected to form a common abdomen, which is attached to the tuberosity of the radius. Part of the fibrous beams directed medially, forms a lamellar appendage, called the bicipital aponeurosis (aponeurosis m. bicipitis brachii) and passes into the fascia of the forearm.

Klyuvovidnoplechevaya muscle (m. coracobrachialis) raises the arm and hand leads to the midline. A flat muscle covering the short head biceps. Point of beginning is at the top of the scapula coracoid process, and place attachment - slightly below the midpoint of the medial surface of the humerus. Near the start point is located klyuvovidnoplechevaya bag (bursa mm. Coracobrachialis).

Shoulder muscles (m. brachialis) flexes his shoulder and pulls the shoulder joint capsule. The muscle is broad, spindle-shaped, located on the front surface of the bottom half of the shoulder under the biceps muscle. It starts on the outside and the front surface of the humerus, and attaches to the tuberosity of the humerus, and in part to the elbow joint capsule.

Posterior group

Triceps brachii (m. triceps brachii) unbend the forearm due to the long head removes his hand back and shoulder leads to the body. Long muscle, located across the back of the arm from the shoulder to the elbow bone. The long head (caput longum) begins on the mound podsustavnom scapula, lateral head (caput laterale) - on the posterolateral surface of the humerus of a large mound above the radial groove, medial head (caput mediale) - on the back surface of the humerus below radial groove, it is partially concealed by the long and lateral heads. All three heads form a fusiform belly, which passes into the tendon and attaches to the olecranon and the capsule of the elbow.

Anconeus (m. anconeus) unbend the forearm at the elbow, pulling the elbow joint capsule. The muscle is a continuation of the medial head of triceps brachii and has a pyramidal shape. Its start point is located at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and the mounting position - on the olecranon and posterior surface of the body of ulna.

List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)