The skeleton of the head

The skeleton of the head, then there is the skull (cranium) consists of the brain and facial skull.

In Fig. 59.
A - front view;
B - lateral view:
1 - parietal bone;
2 - frontal bone;
3 - sphenoid bone;
4 - temporal bone;
5 - lacrimal bone;
6 - nasal bone;
7 - zygomatic bone;
8 - upper jaw;
9 - the lower jaw;
10 - occipital bone

Cerebral skull is ovoid shape and is formed by the occipital, frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, a pair of temporal and parietal bones of the pair. Facial skull is formed by six paired bones (upper jaw, lower turbinate, lacrimal, nasal, zygomatic and palatine bones) and three unpaired (lower jaw, hyoid bone, vomer) and represents the initial division of digestive and respiratory apparatus. The bones of the two skulls joined together by sutures, and practically immobile. The lower jaw connects to the skull joint, therefore the most mobile, the need for its participation in the act of chewing.

The cranial cavity is a continuation of the spinal canal, it contains the brain. The upper section of the cranial formed parietal bones and scales of the frontal, occipital and temporal bones, called the vault or roof of skull (calvaria cranii). The bones of the cranial vault flat, their outer surface smooth and level, and the interior is smooth, but uneven, since it marked the furrows of the arteries, veins and the adjacent convolutions of the brain. Blood vessels are located in the spongy substance - diploe (diploe), located between the outer and inner plates of compact substance. The inner plate is not as strong as the external, it is much more thin and fragile. The lower part of the cranial formed by the frontal, occipital, sphenoid and temporal bones, called the base of the skull (basis cranii).

List of Abbreviations

a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)

lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)

m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)

n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)

r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)

s. — seu (or)

v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)