Artery thoracic and abdominal cavities
Thoracic aorta (aorta thoracica) located in the posterior mediastinum, adjacent to the vertebral column and is divided into two types of branches: splanchnic and parietal.
By the splanchnic branches include:
1) bronchial branches (rr. bronchiales), who at number two, rarely more, branch out with bronchitis and supply blood to the lung tissue, and their terminal branches approach the bronchial lymph nodes, pleura, pericardium, and esophagus;
2) esophageal branches (rr. esophagei), which are three in number, six are sent to the wall of the esophagus and the ascending branch, anastomose with the left ventricular artery and the descending branches anastomose with lower thyroid artery;
3) mediastinal, or mediastinal, branches (rr. mediastinales), and numerous small, nourishing connective tissue, lymph nodes and organs of the mediastinum;
4) pericardial, or pericardial-sumochnye, branches (rr. pericardisci), which supply blood to the back surface of the pericardium.
Parietal branches of the group include:
1) the upper diaphragmatic arteries (aa. phrenicae superiores), which provides the number two top surface of the blood of the diaphragm;
2) the posterior intercostal arteries (aa. interrcostales posteriores) of 10 pairs, 9 of which are in the intercostal spaces (from 3rd to 11th), and the lower edges lie under XII and called infracostal arteries (aa. subcostales). Each of them is divided into dorsal branch (r. dorsalis) and cerebrospinal branch (r. spinalis). In heads of ribs, each intercostal artery divides into the anterior branch supplying the intercostal muscles, wide and straight abdominal muscles, skin, breast and mammary gland, and posterior branch, which supplies blood spinal cord, skin and muscles of the back.
Abdominal aorta (aorta abdominalis) is an extension of the thoracic aorta and is located on the front surface of the lumbar vertebrae, the left of the median line, beginning at the XII thoracic vertebra, and extends to the IV-V of the lumbar vertebrae, which bifurcates into two common iliac arteries (aa. iliacae communes). From the point of division in the pelvic area down the middle sacral artery unpaired (a. sacralis mediana). To the right of the abdominal aorta is lower hollow Vienna. In the course of the abdominal aorta is separated from her parietal and splanchnic branches.
Parietal vessels consist of:
1) the lower diaphragmatic artery (a. phrenica inferior), a powerful steam branch supplying the lower surface of the iris (anterior branch - the anterior diaphragm, posterior branch - rear), and adrenal glands, which feeds the radiating Top adrenal artery (a. suprarenalis superior);
2) the lumbar arteries (aa. lumbales) - four pairs of arteries, anastomosing with each other, with the upper and lower epigastric arteries supplying blood and tissue, skin, stomach and back muscles, partial spinal cord.
Among the splanchnic branches of the two groups: paired and unpaired. The first group (paired arteries) includes the following vessels:
1) The average adrenal artery (a. suprarenalis media) feeds the adrenal gland, the adrenal gland parenchyma anastomose with branches of the lower and upper suprarenal arteries;
2) renal artery (a. renalis) is located behind the inferior vena cava, right kidney parenchyma to, and at the gates of the kidney, it gives a branch - the lower adrenal artery (a. suprarenalis inferior), supplying the adrenal gland;
3) the testicular artery (a. testicularis) through the inguinal canal passes into the scrotum and provide the blood of the ovaries and their appendages, giving the path branches to the adipose capsule of the kidney and ureter (rr. uretrici), and for women this is called the ovarian artery (a. ovarica ) and nurtures the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
|In Fig. 223.
1 - left common carotid artery;
2 - right common carotid artery;
3 - spinal artery;
4 - the right subclavian artery;
5 - the highest intercostal artery;
6 - left subclavian artery;
7 - aortic arch;
8 - intercostal arteries;
9 - aorta;
10 - left gastric artery;
11 - lower diaphragmatic artery;
12 - total hepatic artery;
13 - superior mesenteric artery;
14 - renal artery
By unpaired arteries are as follows:
1) the celiac trunk (truncus coeliacus) - a short vessel (1-2 cm), departing from the aorta at the level of XII thoracic vertebra and separated into three branches:
- The left gastric artery (a. gastrica sinistra) that supplies blood and body of a small curvature of the stomach and esophageal branches gives (rami esophagei), feeding the esophagus;
|In Fig. 224.
Arteries of the abdomen
1 - the left branch of its own hepatic artery;
2 - right hepatic artery branch of its own;
3 - a proper hepatic artery;
4 - the lower diaphragmatic artery;
5 - the right gastric artery;
6 - left gastric artery;
7 - gastrointestinal dvenadtsatiperstnokishechnaya artery;
8 - common hepatic artery;
9 - abdominal aorta;
10 - splenic artery;
11 - left gastroepiploic artery;
12 - The right gastroepiploic artery.
- Common hepatic artery (a. hepatica communis), which consists of two arteries: its own hepatic artery (a. hepatica propria), which supplies blood to the liver, gall bladder and by branching from it, right gastric artery (a. gastrica dextra) - to the walls of the stomach and gastroduodenal or gastroesophageal dvenadtsatiperstnokishechnoy, artery (a. gastroduodenalis), divided into anterior and posterior pankretoduodenalnye arteries that supply blood to the duodenum, pancreas and right gastroepiploic artery (a. gastroepiploica dextra), supplying the stomach wall and caul;
- Splenic artery (a. splenica) supplying blood spleen, as well as the gastric wall and omentum, separated from it by the left gastroepiploic artery (a. gastroepiploica sinistra), part of the pancreas;
2) the superior mesenteric artery (a. mesenterica superior), which starts at level II lumbar vertebra behind the pancreatic head and falls on the anterior surface of the ascending part of duodenum, reaching between her sheets to the iliac fossa and giving in the course of several branches:
- Lower pancreaticoduodenal artery (a. pencreaticoduodenales inferiores) supply blood to the pancreas and duodenum;
- Colic artery (aa. jejunales) with iliac artery-intestinal (aa. ileales) are located in the mesentery in an amount of 15-20 vessels and anastomoziruya with each other, forming numerous intestinal arterial arch from which branch off straight arteries that provide in-wall vessels of three types - single-barreled (unitrunkalnye) dvuhstvolny (bifurcation), three-barrel (trifurkatsionnye) - and supplying the wall of the jejunum and ileum;
- Ilio-colon-intestinal artery (a. ileocolica) feeds the terminal ileum, ascending colon, cecum and appendix;
- The right colon-intestinal artery (a. colica dextra) supplies blood colon, its ascending and transverse parts;
- The average colon-intestinal artery (a. colica media) carries blood to the walls of the transverse colon;
3) the inferior mesenteric artery (a. mesenterica inferior) begins at the level of lumbar vertebra and III, heading for the peritoneum down and left, gives several branches:
- The left colon-intestinal artery (a. colica sinistra) supplies blood to the descending part of the colon and part of the cross;
- Sigmoid-intestinal artery (a. sigmoidea) supplies blood sigmoid colon;
- The upper rectal artery (a. rectalis superiores) is sent to the walls of the sigmoid colon and the upper third of the rectum.
|In Fig. 225.
Artery of the colon
1 - medium-intestinal colic artery;
2 - inferior mesenteric artery;
3 - abdominal aorta;
4 - Left-intestinal colic artery;
5 - Sigmoid-intestinal artery;
6 - common iliac artery;
7 - the upper rectal artery
|In Fig. 226.
Artery of colon and small intestine
1 - anastomosis between the left and middle colon-intestinal arteries;
2 - left colon-intestinal artery;
3 - average-intestinal colic artery;
4 - superior mesenteric artery;
5 - Right-intestinal colic artery;
6 - colic artery;
7 - ilio-colon-intestinal artery;
8 - iliac artery E.
a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)
lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)
m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)
n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)
r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)
s. — seu (or)
v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)