The arteries of the pelvis and lower extremities
Common iliac artery (a. iliaca communis) is a companion vessel, formed by bifurcation (division) of the abdominal aorta. At the level of the sacroiliac joint, each common iliac artery gives two terminal branches: the external and internal iliac arteries.
External iliac artery (a. iliaca externa) is the main vessel providing blood entire lower extremity. In the pelvis from it branched vessels supplying the muscles of the pelvis and abdomen, as well as shell eggs, and the labia majora. Passing under the inguinal ligament to the thigh, it goes into the femoral artery (a. femoralis), lie between the extensor and hip adductor muscles. From the femoral artery leaves a number of branches:
1) the deep femoral artery (a. profunda femoris) is the largest vessel, departing from the femoral artery, depart from her medial and lateral arteries, enveloping the femur (aa. circumflexae femoris medialis et lateralis), which carry blood skin and muscles of the pelvis and thigh, and three perforating arteries (aa. perforantes), feeding the femur, hip flexors and hip;
2) The superficial epigastric artery (a. epigastrica superficialis) is sent to the skin and outer muscle of the abdomen;
3) The superficial artery, iliac bone envelope (a. circumflexa ilium superficialis), supplies blood skin, muscle and inguinal lymph nodes;
4) The external genitalia artery (aa. pudendae externae) provide the skin with blood pubis, scrotum and labia majora;
5) inguinal branch (rr. inguinales) nourish the skin, superficial and deep lymph nodes in the groin area.
|In Fig. 227.
1 - abdominal aorta;
2 - total iliac artery;
3 - median sacral artery;
4 - the internal iliac artery;
5 - external iliac artery;
6 - the internal genital artery;
7 - vas artery flow;
8 - lower rectal artery
The internal iliac artery (a. iliaca interna) is located directly in the pelvic cavity. Radiating branches supplying blood to subdivide the pelvic wall and feed the pelvic organs. The former include:
1) iliac artery lumbar (a. iliolumbalis), penetrating into the abdominal muscles and lumbar spine;
2) The lateral sacral artery (aa. sacrales laterales), saturating the blood of the sacrum, sacral skin, lower parts of the back muscles and abdomen, as well as the spinal cord;
3) the upper gluteal artery (a. glutea superior), which feeds the muscles of the pelvis, thighs, perineum and gluteal muscles;
4) the lower gluteal artery (a. glutea inferior), carrying the blood of the skin and muscles of the gluteal region, part of the pelvis and thigh muscles, as well as feeding the sciatic nerve and hip;
5) The obturator artery (a. obturatoria), which sends its branches to the muscles of the pelvis and thigh, supplying blood hip and ischium.
The major arteries that carry blood to the organs of the pelvis, are the following:
1) umbilical artery (a. umbilicalis) operates the upper parts of the bladder and the distal part of the urine-sources;
2) The average rectal artery (a. rectalis media) supplies blood to the walls of the rectum, part of the prostate and seminal vesicles;
3) the vas deferens artery (a. ductus deferentis) supplies blood vas deferens, seminal vesicles and epididymis, female isolated uterine artery (a. uterina), which nourishes the uterus, vagina, fallopian tubes and ovaries;
4) internal genital artery (a. pudenda interna) supplies blood to the urethra, the lower part of the rectum, the muscles of the perineum, clitoris, scrotum and penis.
|In Fig. 228.
The femoral artery
1 - total iliac artery;
2 - deep artery, the envelope of the femur;
3 - internal iliac artery;
4 - lateral sacral artery;
5 - deep artery of the thigh;
6 - medial artery, the envelope of the femur;
7 - lateral artery, the envelope of the femur;
8 - perforating arteries;
9 - femoral artery;
10 - a downward knee artery
|In Fig. 229.
1 - popliteal artery;
2 - side upper artery knee;
3 - upper medial knee artery;
4 - calf arteries;
5 - lateral lower artery knee;
6 - lower medial knee artery;
7 - anterior tibial artery;
8 - the posterior tibial artery;
9 - fibula artery;
10 - lodyzhkovye medial branches;
11 - Side lodyzhkovye branches;
12 - Heel network
|In Fig. 230.
Anterior tibial artery
1 - recurrent anterior tibial artery;
2 - anterior tibial artery;
3 - perforating branch of fibular artery;
4 - Lateral ankle vascular network;
5 - lateral tarsal artery;
6 - rear artery of foot;
7 - dorsal metatarsal artery
Femoral artery continues to the popliteal artery (a. poplitea), occurs in the popliteal fossa, is directed downwards and sideways and being a vessel of the lower extremity. It gives the medial and lateral patellar branches that surround the muscles, anastomoziruya with each other and form a vascular network of knee joint (rete articulare genus). Multiple branches are sent to the lower divisions of the thigh muscles. In the lower corner of the fossa popliteal artery is divided into finite branches: anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
Anterior tibial artery (a. tibialis anterior) through the interosseous membrane enters the front surface of the tibia and descends between the extensors, giving the course of numerous muscular branches. In the lower third of the leg from her bifurcate medial and lateral anterior artery lodyzhkovye (aa. malleolares anterior, medialis et lateralis), forming a vascular network ankles (rete malleolare) - the lateral and medial. On the back surface of the anterior tibial artery passes into the back of the foot artery (a. dorsales pedis).
The back of the foot gives artery medial and lateral tarsal artery (aa. tarseae mediales et laterales), taking part in the formation of the back of the vascular network of the foot. Also, it departs from the arcuate artery (a. arcuata), branching into four dorsal metatarsal artery (aa. metatarsae dorsales), each of which, in turn, is divided into two dorsal finger arteries (aa. digitales dorsales) that supply blood to the back surface of II-V toes. Terminal branches of the back of the artery are first metatarsal artery backside (a. metatarsea dorsalis prima), branching in the dorsal finger artery, two of which supply blood to the finger I, and one - the medial surface of the fingers II, and the deep plantar branch (r. plantaris profundus), emanating through the first interosseous space on the plantar surface of the foot and taking part in the formation of the plantar arch (arcus plantaris).
|In Fig. 231.
Posterior tibial artery
1 - popliteal artery;
2 - calf;
3 - anterior tibial artery;
4 - fibula artery;
5 - posterior tibial artery;
6 - medial branch lodyzhkovaya;
7 - medial ankle vascular network;
8 - calcaneal branch;
9 - lateral plantar artery;
10 - medial plantar artery;
11 - Heel network
|In Fig. 232.
The arteries of the foot plantar surface
1 - Heel network;
2 - the posterior tibial artery;
3 - medial plantar artery;
4 - lateral plantar artery;
5 - deep plantar arch;
6 - plantar metatarsal arteries;
7 - own finger plantar artery
Posterior tibial artery (a. tibialis posterior) is going down leg, passing along its entire back surface. Skirting the medial malleolus of the tibia, the artery passes to the sole and provides medial and lateral plantar artery (aa. plantaris medialis et lateralis). The largest branch of the posterior tibial artery is the artery of fibula (a. fibularis), which supplies blood to the fibula, calf muscles and posterior lateral groups. In addition, the artery gives the medial and lateral branches lodyzhkovye (rr. malleolares mediales et laterales), taking part in the formation of lateral and medial ankle vascular network, and calcaneal branch (rr. calcanei) supplying the heel of the foot and heel involved in the formation of the network (rete calcaneum).
On the medial edge of the plantar surface of the foot is the medial plantar artery (a. plantaris medialis), divided into superficial and deep branch of the blood and provides the skin and muscles of the foot.
The lateral plantar artery (a. plantaris lateralis) gives his own finger plantar artery (a. digitalis plantaris propria), a guide to the lateral edge of the V finger, in the first period of intertarsal anastomose with the plantar arterial branch of the back of the foot and forms deep plantar arch (arcus plantaris profundus). From this arc depart four plantar metatarsal artery (aa. metatarseae plantares), each of which is divided into two proper plantar artery finger (aa. digitales plantares propriae), supplying blood to the toes of the foot.
a., aa. — arteria, arteriae (artery, the artery)
lig., ligg. — ligamentum, ligamenta (ligament, the ligaments)
m., mm. — musculus, musculi (muscle, the muscle)
n., nn. — nervus, nervi (nerve, the nerve)
r., rr. — ramus, rami (branch)
s. — seu (or)
v., vv. — vena, venae (vienna)